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Materi Workshop OPHAR GI _Pusdiklat Versions PEMELIHARAAN

Materi Workshop OPHAR GI _Pusdiklat Versions PEMELIHARAAN

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Published by Muhammad Yusuf

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Published by: Muhammad Yusuf on Nov 12, 2012
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07/15/2013

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MATERI WORKSHOP
OPERASI DAN PEMELIHARAANGARDU INDUK
PT PLN (Persero) PUSDIKLAT2009
 
 
Berbagi dan menyebarkan ilmu pengetahuan serta nilai-nilai perusahaan 
 
 PT PLN (Persero)PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN
Daftar Isi
 
DAFTAR ISI
DAFTAR ISI .................................................................................................................. i
 
DAFTAR GAMBAR .................................................................................................... ix
 
DAFTAR TABEL ........................................................................................................ xiii
 
1.
 
PENGOPERASIAN PERALATAN GARDU INDUK ................................................. 1
 
1.1
 
PENGENALAN GARDU INDUK ........................................................................ 1
 
1.1.1
 
Peranan Gardu Induk dalam Sistem Kelistrikan ...................................... 1
 
1.1.2
 
Pengertian dan Fungsi Gardu Induk ........................................................ 1
 
1.1.3
 
Jenis Gardu Induk .................................................................................... 1
 
1.1.3.1
 
Menurut pelayanannya ............................................................... 1
 
1.1.3.2
 
Menurut Penempatannya ........................................................... 1
 
1.1.3.3
 
Menurut isolasinya ...................................................................... 2
 
1.1.3.4
 
Menurut rel ................................................................................. 2
 
1.1.4
 
Single Line Diagram ................................................................................ 2
 
1.1.5
 
Peralatan Gardu Induk ............................................................................. 4
 
1.1.5.1
 
Transformator Tenaga ................................................................ 4
 
1.1.5.2
 
Transformator Instrument ........................................................... 9
 
1.1.5.3
 
Pemisah (PMS) ........................................................................ 11
 
1.1.5.4
 
Pemutus Tenaga (PMT) ........................................................... 12
 
1.1.5.5
 
Lightning Arrester (LA).............................................................. 12
 
1.1.5.6
 
Reaktor ..................................................................................... 14
 
1.1.5.7
 
Capasitor .................................................................................. 14
 
1.1.5.8
 
Pentanahan .............................................................................. 14
 
1.1.5.9
 
Sistem catu daya ...................................................................... 15
 
1.1.5.10
 
Meter ........................................................................................ 17
 
1.1.5.11
 
Relai Proteksi ........................................................................... 18
 
1.2
 
PENGOPERASIAN GARDU INDUK ............................................................... 21
 
1.2.1
 
Wewenang dan Tanggung Jawab ......................................................... 21
 
1.2.1.1
 
Wewenang dan Tanggung Jawab Operator dalamPengoperasian GI .................................................................... 21
 
1.2.1.2
 
Wewenang dan Tanggung Jawab Unit GI dalam Sistem.......... 22
 
1.2.2
 
Macam-Macam Kondisi Operasi Gardu Induk ....................................... 22
 
1.2.2.1
 
Operasi GI Kondisi Normal ....................................................... 22
 
1.2.2.2
 
Operasi GI Kondisi Tidak Normal ............................................. 22
 
1.2.2.3
 
Operasi GI Kondisi Baru ........................................................... 23
 
1.2.3
 
Pengoperasian Bay Penghantar, Trafo, Kopel, Kapasitor dan Kubikel .. 24
 
1.2.4
 
Proses Perintah Manuver Peralatan s.d. Pelaksanaan di Jaringan GarduInduk ..................................................................................................... 26
 
1.2.5
 
Prosedur Manuver PMT Dan PMS Untuk Pengoperasian DanPembebasan Peralatan Di Jaringan Gardu Induk ................................. 27
 
1.2.6
 
Pengamatan, Pemeriksaan Dan Pengendalian Operasi Kondisi Normal.............................................................................................................. 29
 
1.2.6.1
 
Pemeriksaan Dan Pengaturan Tegangan................................. 29
 
1.2.6.2
 
Pengamatan Beban .................................................................. 29
 
1.2.6.3
 
Pemeriksaan Kabel TT ............................................................. 29
 
1.2.6.4
 
Pemeriksaan Transformator Tenaga ........................................ 29
 
1.2.6.5
 
Pemeriksaan PMT .................................................................... 30
 
 
 
Berbagi dan menyebarkan ilmu pengetahuan serta nilai-nilai perusahaan 
 
ii 
 PT PLN (Persero)PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN
Daftar Isi
 1.2.6.6
 
Pemeriksaan Sumber DC ......................................................... 30
 
1.2.6.7
 
Pencatatan Energi Listrik .......................................................... 30
 
1.2.7
 
Prosedur Operasi Gardu Induk Dalam Kondisi Pemeliharaan ............... 30
 
1.2.8
 
Prosedur Operasi Gardu Induk Dalam Kondisi Baru ............................. 33
 
1.2.8.1
 
Kelayakan Operasi ................................................................... 33
 
1.2.8.2
 
Koordinasi rencana operasi ...................................................... 33
 
1.2.8.3
 
Pelalaksanaan Operasi............................................................. 33
 
1.3
 
PENANGANAN GANGGUAN GARDU INDUK ................................................ 34
 
1.3.1
 
Prosedur Operasi Gardu Induk dalam Kondisi Gangguan ..................... 34
 
1.3.2
 
Tindakan dan Pemulihan Gangguan ..................................................... 35
 
1.3.3
 
Prosedur Operasi Gardu Induk Dalam Kondisi Darurat ......................... 38
 
1.4
 
PENGENALAN DAN PEMAHAMAN PERALATAN SCADATel ....................... 39
 
1.4.1
 
Pengertian SCADA ................................................................................ 39
 
1.4.2
 
Latar Belakang....................................................................................... 39
 
1.4.3
 
Definisi SCADA ...................................................................................... 39
 
1.4.4
 
Fungsi SCADA....................................................................................... 40
 
2.
 
DASAR-DASAR SISTEM PROTEKSI TEGANGAN TINGGI ................................. 41
 
2.1
 
POLA PROTEKSI GARDU INDUK .................................................................. 41
 
2.1.1
 
Proteksi Trafo Tenaga ........................................................................... 42
 
2.1.1.1
 
Gangguan Pada Trafo Tenaga terdiri dari: ............................... 42
 
2.1.1.2
 
Fungsi Proteksi Trafo tenaga terhadap gangguan .................... 44
 
2.1.1.3
 
Pola Proteksi Trafo tenaga berdasarkan SPLN 52-1 ................ 44
 
2.1.1.4
 
Proteksi utama Trafo Tenaga ................................................... 45
 
2.1.1.5
 
Proteksi Cadangan Trafo Tenaga ............................................. 48
 
2.1.2
 
Proteksi Busbar/Diameter/Kopel ............................................................ 54
 
2.1.2.1
 
Relai Differential Busbar ........................................................... 54
 
2.1.2.2
 
Relai Arus Sirkulasi (Circulating Current Protection/87) ........... 61
 
2.1.2.3
 
Proteksi Kegagalan PMT (Breaker Fail-CBF) .......................... 61
 
2.1.2.4
 
Proteksi Zone Pendek (
Short Zone Protection–SZP 
) ............. 63
 
2.1.2.5
 
Relai Proteksi Kopel ................................................................. 64
 
2.2
 
POLA PROTEKSI PENGHANTAR .................................................................. 65
 
2.2.1
 
Pola Proteksi Saluran Udara Tegangan Tinggi (SUTT) ......................... 65
 
2.2.1.1
 
SUTT 70 kV .............................................................................. 66
 
2.2.1.2
 
SUTT 150 kV ............................................................................ 69
 
2.2.2
 
Pola Proteksi Saluran Kabel Tegangan Tinggi (SKTT) .......................... 70
 
2.2.3
 
Pola Proteksi Saluran Campuran ........................................................... 72
 
2.2.4
 
Prinsip Kerja Relai Proteksi ................................................................... 73
 
2.2.4.1
 
Relai Jarak (Distance relay)...................................................... 73
 
2.2.4.2
 
Relai Differensial Penghantar ................................................... 76
 
2.3
 
PERALATAN BANTU PROTEKSI ................................................................... 80
 
2.3.1
 
Synchro check ....................................................................................... 80
 
2.3.2
 
Penutup Balik Otomatis (Autoreclose) ................................................... 81
 
2.3.2.1
 
Klasifikasi Pola Autoreclose: ..................................................... 81
 
2.3.2.2
 
Pengoperasian A/R cepat (High Speed A/R) ............................ 83
 
2.3.2.3
 
Penerapan A/R cepat 1(satu) fasa ........................................... 83
 
2.3.2.4
 
Penerapan A/R cepat 3 (tiga) fasa ........................................... 83
 
2.3.2.5
 
Pengoperasian A/R lambat ....................................................... 84
 
2.3.2.6
 
Kondisi Autoreclose tidak boleh bekerja ................................... 85
 
2.3.2.7
 
Kondisi Autoreclose tidak boleh diterapkan .............................. 85
 
2.3.3
 
AVR Trafo tenaga .................................................................................. 86
 

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