Rates Structure Modification Proposalfor Costumer with Nonlinear Loads
August0 A. Abreu
Energia Elkctrica de Venezuela
The scope of this paper is to show
method ofapplying a different electrical rate to nonlinear loadcustomers in order to recover the impact of this kind of loadcan cause in
electrical network, in this
thedistributors can be prepared and can invest
the network inorder to supply it, and it able
to recover technical lossescaused by harmonics current and all other harmonics relatedproblems. This is a
was done at Zulia
substation that supplies electrical power mainly toelectrosumergible pumps used for oil companies at Zuliastate, Venezuela.
Metering, Harmonics Rates, Energy Losses,Power Quality.
The massive use of nonlinear loadsinthe last decade hascaused great inconvenient due
the increase of theharmonics pollution
the power system and the relatedproblems that this can cause. it has been focused only to give
a solution, by in the real world
customers don't want orthey can't fit this problem cause financial problems.
order to find an answer to this, let's go back to basis.When the inductive loads started to be common on thenetwork, there was an inconvenient. the power utilities had tosupply great amount
reactive power from the source to thecustomers,
they had the responsibility of carrying outinvestments in transmission, in order to deliver this power thatit was not billed.There are two ways worldwide used to solve it. One ofthem is regulating the power factor to a desired value and theend user can have a penalty if this value gets below it. Theother one is billing the apparent power, it creates an incentiveto the customers
install reactive compensation equipments.This last solution has the advantage to penalize in function ofthe demand, this procedure is used in Venezuela. Like wise, itcan be used in a similar way with the harmonics in current.Establishing an electrical rate that reflects the economicalimpact that such currents multiple from de fundamental cancause
the network, which it'll in the majority of the casespush the costumer to search for devices that minimize theinsertion
This paper is focused to show the use and simplicity
applying harmonics electrical rate to customers
invest and prepare the network and the distributors for it, it'llallow
to recover technical losses caused by the harmonicscurrent inserted by nonlinear loads. And also we'll show you aproposal and a study case where a modification of theelectrical rate structure is explained,
the costumer thatinserts harmonics currents to the distribution system will becharged with a monthly payment equal to the economicalimpact that such currents have on
system, with emphasisin the transformation stage. This involves the substitutionfrom the traditional demand charge to harmonics demandcharge, it based on the proposed method
ECONOMICAL IMPACT CAUSED
different measurement within the
system, it was found that the voltage harmonics distortion,only the 13% from the sample exceed the limits establishedby the IEEE 519-92 [l].
we realized that high levels ofharmonic voltage distortion represent high impedances at thedistribution network, that this parameter is a responsibilityfiom the electric utility
Therefore, it is important tomaintain this impedance levels
lower as possible, to areasonable economic and technical point. Now checkingcurrent harmonics distortion, we found that the
from thesample exceed the limits established by the 519-92 [l],parameter that is costumer's responsibility.This harmonics current generator type of load, causeslosses
the elements on the electrical network, mainly onlines and transformers. From these elements, the transformersrepresent the equipments where they produce the mostimportant losses from the power system.
energy (kwh) losses estimation can be calculated fiomthe method used to estimate the transformers capacity, whensupply non sinusoidal loads ANSI/ IEEE C57.110-1998
Such losses represented a
fiom the total load. That ifwe calculate this in term of money, we're talking aboutUS$258.218,00 of technical
cause by harmonics currenton the evaluated sample .