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Chapters 13 and 14 Groupwork Key

Chapters 13 and 14 Groupwork Key

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Published by: RODENIOUS on Nov 13, 2012
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11/21/2013

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Chapters 13 and 14 Groupwork KeyQ1. Pg 508-6Some theories arise from anecdotal evidence that is difficult to confirm. In The Left-Hander Syndrome (1992), Stanley Coren sought to evaluate the common belief that left-handed persons die sooner than right-handers. But death certificates or other publicrecords very rarely mention the hand preferred by the deceased
. What could serve as areliable data source with which that hypothesis could be tested?
Coren searched baseball records, noting which hand baseball pitchers threw with, and then recording their ages at death. Right-handed pitchers, he found, lived an average nine months longer thanlefties. Then, in a follow-up study, he and a colleague telephoned the relatives of peoplenamed on death certificates in two California counties, to ask which hand the deceasedfavored. Right-handed people (that study found) lived an average of nine years longer than lefties. 
The Method of Agreement.
1. Right-handed pitchers lived on average nine months longer than lefties,2. Right-handed people, involved in the California study, lived an average of nine yearslonger than leftiesBoth studies show the same result (right-handed people live longer than left-handed people), agreeing that the circumstance (handedness of the person) is the cause of thegiven phenomenon (timing of death).However, the analysis is not proof of the phenomenon. There have been other studiesconcerning left vs. right handed people and early death. The question must also be, “Isthe circumstance sufficient to be the cause of the phenomenon?” Subsequent studies havedisproved this concept.
 
False cause
- An informal fallacy in which the mistake arises from treating as the causeof something that which is not really its cause. Note:This is not the Method of Difference because there were no differences between theresults of the two studies. Nothing was subtracted from the first set of circumstances tosee if there was a difference in the results.This is not the Method of Residues because again no known causal relationships weresubtracted from the results.Also, this is not the Method of Concomitant Variation because there is no increase or decrease in some circumstance in the studies.Q2.We can legitimately infer cause from effect only in the sense of:a) proximate cause. b) sufficient condition.c) necessary condition.d) remote cause.c) necessary condition is the correct answer.Q3.Which, of the choices below, is the least important reason for scientists to pursue their fields?a) They want to satisfy their curiosity. b) The want to find practical solutions to human problems.c) They want to increase the total amount of information available to humanity.d) They want to unify knowledge and make it simpler.c) is the correct answer.

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