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Non-Solvable Ordinary Differential Equations With Applications, by Linfan Mao

Non-Solvable Ordinary Differential Equations With Applications, by Linfan Mao

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Published by science2010
Different from the system in classical mathematics, a Smaran-
dache system is a contradictory system in which an axiom behaves in at least
two different ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, or
only invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems exist extensively
in the world, particularly, in our daily life. In this paper, we discuss such a
kind of Smarandache system, i.e., non-solvable ordinary differential equation
systems by a combinatorial approach, classify these systems and characterize
their behaviors, particularly, the sum-stability and prod-stability of such lin-
ear and non-linear differential equations. Some applications of such systems
to other sciences, such as those of globally controlling of infectious diseases,
establishing dynamical equations of instable structure, particularly, the n-
body problem and understanding global stability of matters with multilateral
properties can be also found.
Different from the system in classical mathematics, a Smaran-
dache system is a contradictory system in which an axiom behaves in at least
two different ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, or
only invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems exist extensively
in the world, particularly, in our daily life. In this paper, we discuss such a
kind of Smarandache system, i.e., non-solvable ordinary differential equation
systems by a combinatorial approach, classify these systems and characterize
their behaviors, particularly, the sum-stability and prod-stability of such lin-
ear and non-linear differential equations. Some applications of such systems
to other sciences, such as those of globally controlling of infectious diseases,
establishing dynamical equations of instable structure, particularly, the n-
body problem and understanding global stability of matters with multilateral
properties can be also found.

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Published by: science2010 on Nov 13, 2012
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Non-Solvable Ordinary Differential EquationsWith Applications
Linfan MAO
(Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Beijing 100080, P.R.China)E-mail: maolinfan@163.com
Abstract
:
Different from the system in classical mathematics, a Smaran-dache system is a contradictory system in which an axiom behaves in at leasttwo different ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, oronly invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems exist extensivelyin the world, particularly, in our daily life. In this paper, we discuss such akind of Smarandache system, i.e., non-solvable ordinary differential equationsystems by a combinatorial approach, classify these systems and characterizetheir behaviors, particularly, the sum-stability and prod-stability of such lin-ear and non-linear differential equations. Some applications of such systemsto other sciences, such as those of globally controlling of infectious diseases,establishing dynamical equations of instable structure, particularly, the
n
-body problem and understanding global stability of matters with multilateralproperties can be also found.
Key Words
:
Ordinary differential equation, general solution,
-solution,
-solution, sum-stability, prod-stability, asymptotic behavior, Smarandachesystem, inherit graph, instable structure, dynamical equation, multilateralmatter.
AMS(2010)
:
05C15, 34A30, 34A34, 37C75, 70F10, 92B05
§
1
.
Introduction
Finding the exact solution of an equation system is a main but a difficult objectiveunless some special cases in classical mathematics. Contrary to this fact,
what is about the non-solvable case for an equation system? 
In fact, such an equationsystem is nothing but a contradictory system, and characterized only by having no
 
1. Introduction
2solution as a conclusion. But our world is overlap and hybrid. The number of non-solvable equations is much more than that of the solvable and such equation systemscan be also applied for characterizing the behavior of things, which reflect the realappearances of things by that their complexity in our world. It should be noted thatsuch non-solvable linear algebraic equation systems have been characterized recentlyby the author in the reference [7]. The main purpose of this paper is to characterizethe behavior of such non-solvable ordinary differential equation systems.Assume
m, n
1 to be integers in this paper. Let˙
=
(
) (
DE
1
)be an autonomous differential equation with
:
R
n
R
n
and
(0) = 0, particu-larly, let˙
=
AX 
(
LDES 
1
)be a linear differential equation system and
x
(
n
)
+
a
1
x
(
n
1)
+
···
+
a
n
x
= 0 (
LDE 
n
)a linear differential equation of order
n
with
A
=
a
11
a
12
···
a
1
n
a
21
a
22
···
a
2
n
··· ··· ··· ···
a
n
1
a
n
2
···
a
nn
=
x
1
(
t
)
x
2
(
t
)
···
x
n
(
t
)
and
(
t,
) =
1
(
t,
)
2
(
t,
)
···
n
(
t,
)
,
where all
a
i
, a
ij
,
1
i,j
n
are real numbers with˙
= (˙
x
1
,
˙
x
2
,
···
,
˙
x
n
)
and
i
(
t
) is a continuous function on an interval [
a,b
] for integers 0
i
n
.The following result is well-known for the solutions of (
LDES 
1
) and (
LDE 
n
) inreferences.
Theorem
1
.
1([13])
If 
(
)
is continuous in 
(
0
) :
|
t
t
0
|
a,
0
b
(
a >
0
, b >
0)
then there exists a solution 
(
t
)
of differential equation 
(
DE
1
)
in the interval 
|
t
t
0
|
h
, where 
h
= min
{
a,b/
}
,
= max
(
t,X 
)
(
t
0
,X 
0
)
(
t,
)
.
 
1. Introduction
3
Theorem
1
.
2([13])
Let 
λ
i
be the 
k
i
-fold zero of the characteristic equation 
det(
A
λI 
n
×
n
) =
|
A
λI 
n
×
n
|
= 0
or the characteristic equation 
λ
n
+
a
1
λ
n
1
+
···
+
a
n
1
λ
+
a
n
= 0
with 
k
1
+
k
2
+
···
+
k
s
=
n
. Then the general solution of 
(
LDES 
1
)
is 
n
i
=1
c
i
β 
i
(
t
)
e
α
i
t
,
where,
c
i
is a constant,
β 
i
(
t
)
is an 
n
-dimensional vector consisting of polynomials in 
t
determined as follows 
β 
1
(
t
) =
t
11
t
21
···
t
n
1
β 
2
(
t
) =
t
11
t
+
t
12
t
21
t
+
t
22
·········
t
n
1
t
+
t
n
2
···························
β 
k
1
(
t
) =
t
11
(
k
1
1)!
t
k
1
1
+
t
12
(
k
1
2)!
t
k
1
2
+
···
+
t
1
k
1
t
21
(
k
1
1)!
t
k
1
1
+
t
22
(
k
1
2)!
t
k
1
2
+
···
+
t
2
k
1
·································
t
n
1
(
k
1
1)!
t
k
1
1
+
t
n
2
(
k
1
2)!
t
k
1
2
+
···
+
t
nk
1
β 
k
1
+1
(
t
) =
t
1(
k
1
+1)
t
2(
k
1
+1)
······
t
n
(
k
1
+1)
β 
k
1
+2
(
t
) =
t
11
t
+
t
12
t
21
t
+
t
22
·········
t
n
1
t
+
t
n
2

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