Non-Solvable Ordinary Diﬀerential EquationsWith Applications
Linfan MAO
(Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Beijing 100080, P.R.China)E-mail: maolinfan@163.com
Abstract
:
Diﬀerent from the system in classical mathematics, a Smaran-dache system is a contradictory system in which an axiom behaves in at leasttwo diﬀerent ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, oronly invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems exist extensivelyin the world, particularly, in our daily life. In this paper, we discuss such akind of Smarandache system, i.e., non-solvable ordinary diﬀerential equationsystems by a combinatorial approach, classify these systems and characterizetheir behaviors, particularly, the sum-stability and prod-stability of such lin-ear and non-linear diﬀerential equations. Some applications of such systemsto other sciences, such as those of globally controlling of infectious diseases,establishing dynamical equations of instable structure, particularly, the
n
-body problem and understanding global stability of matters with multilateralproperties can be also found.
Key Words
:
Ordinary diﬀerential equation, general solution,
∨
-solution,
∧
-solution, sum-stability, prod-stability, asymptotic behavior, Smarandachesystem, inherit graph, instable structure, dynamical equation, multilateralmatter.
AMS(2010)
:
05C15, 34A30, 34A34, 37C75, 70F10, 92B05
§
1
.
Introduction
Finding the exact solution of an equation system is a main but a diﬃcult objectiveunless some special cases in classical mathematics. Contrary to this fact,
what is about the non-solvable case for an equation system?
In fact, such an equationsystem is nothing but a contradictory system, and characterized only by having no