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The Humanure Handbook Index

The Humanure Handbook Index

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Published by: nonamegirl23 on Nov 13, 2012
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A
actinomycetes: 39,43population in compost: 39population in soil: 39thermophilic: 46activated sludge treatment: 93aerobic bacteria: 31aerosol can remediation: 59 Africa: 117agricultural land: 72agricultural limestone: 53 Agricultural Testament: 48agriculture: 20 Asian: 73Bio-dynamic: 123pollution from: 20agronutrients in humanure: 14 Alascan: 120algae: 21, 92bacteria with: 221alternative graywater systems:see “constructed wetland”ammonia: 95ammonia gas: 33anaerobic bacteria: 31anaerobic odors: 31analgesics: 19animal manures: 22animal mortalities: 62anthracnose: 60antibiotic resistant bacteria: 18antibiotics: 19, 46produced by microorganisms:46antimicrobial compounds: 46antiseptics: 19appliances, water use: 208aquaculture: 21 Aquatron: 120aquatic plants: 96illustrated: 218 Argentina: 117artificial wetland (see “construct-ed wetland”)
 Ascaris lumbricoides
: 26,107,133, 134, 137, 150-151co-evolution: 133eggs of: 99, 133viability: 134, 137shell: 134development temperatures: 134ashy stem blight: 60 Asian recycling: 72 Aspergillus fumigatus: 52
B
Bacillus stearothermophilus: 41,45bacteria: 27, 131; see also
The Humanure Handbook — Index
249
“pathogens”aerobic: 31anaerobic: 31antibiotic resistant: 18heavy metal resistance: 99mesophilic: 37populations in compost: 39populations in fertile soil: 39psychrophiles: 37resistance to antibiotics: 99size of: 38thermophilic: 37Bahrain: 20Bavaria: 78beach closings: 17beach pollution: 18Beef tapeworm: 99benzene: 89beta-blocker heart drugs: 19bilharzia: 132biobins: 231biodiversity: 43, 45in compost: 43, 45in nature: 44in soils: 60Bio-Dynamic: 123biofilter: 59, 61, 159Biolet: 118biological filtration systems: 59,61Biological Oxygen Demand: seeBODbiological sponge: 108, 161, 173Biological-Macrophytic MarshBed: 213biopesticides: 62biosollids: 234Bio-Sun: 120bladder cancer: 95Black Death: 77blackwater: 97, 203BOD: 210body fat: 5boron: 206Botswana: 117Brazil: 15bread, thermophiles on: 37breast cancer: 5Bronx River: 17bucket toilets: 125, 156, 159,185, 189emptying: 183, 193bulking material: 104bulrush: 213Butler, Pennsylvania: 232
C
C/N ratio: 33, (see “carbon”)Calcutta: 21Campylobacter: 130cancer: 5, 20, 89, 94Candida albicans: 45Cape May: 37carbofuran: 56carbon: 33carbon dioxide: 5, 14, 41carbon tetrachloride: 94Carbon/Nitrogen ratio: 32, 33, 34nitrogen loss and: 33, 34of humanure: 35carcinogens: 5, 94carousel toilet: 116cartage systems: see “bucket”Casa del Aqua: 208Catholic: 78cat liver fluke: 132cattail: 218Celsius: 237Central America: 113, 229cesium: 57chemical fertilizer: 20leaching: 20groundwater pollution: 20global consumption of: 20U.S. usage: 20chemicals, toxic: 56, 97chemical wastes: 97Chernobyl: 57childhood cancers: 5chili wilt: 60China: 21, 67, 72, 122, 127, 201humanure recycling: 81humanure dumping: 82sanitation: 82use of synthetic fertilizers: 81wastewater disposal: 82water pollution in: 82Chinese liver fluke: 132chloramine: 95chlorinated chemicals: 58chlorine: 18,57, 92, 207bladder cancer and: 95chloramines: 95pregnant women and: 95rectal cancer and: 95U.S. population exposure: 95chloroform: 89, 94chlorophenol: 57cholera: 12, 21,77, 79, 80Christianity: 77chromated copper arsenate: 36Clivus: 115, 118Clopyralid: 59CO
2
: 5, 14coastal discharges: 17coastlines: 17coliform bacteria: 17, 135, 210fecal: 135combined sewers: 17, 91Complete Book of Composting:32compost: 26
INDEX
 
acidity: 53-55actinomycetes: 43aerosol can remediation: 59aerosol emissions: 52aeration: 50analysis: 180antibiotics: 19, 46batch: 41, 50, 179benefits of: 22, 28, 32, 62binding metals: 56binding lead in soils: 57bins: 172, 173biodiversity: 43, 44, 45biofilters: 59, 173biopesticides: 62browns and greens: 36bulking materials: 66, 104cold climate heat loss: 52compost testing labs: 117continuous: 41, 50, 179turning: 49, 179cost of turning: 49, 52covering: 29, 31, 180cover materials: 31, 180curing: 42decontaminating soil: 58defined: 26degrading toxic chemicals: 29,57dehydration: 31designer: 62dogs and: 29, 64enzymes: 53filtration systems:59flies and: 31four necessities for: 30balanced diet: 32moisture: 30oxygen: 31temperature: 31four stages of: 41freezing: 31fungi: (see “fungi”)heat of: 45heavy metals and: 100inoculants: 52-53labs: 117leachate from: 178leaching: 29, 178lignins: (see “lignin”)liming: 48, 53, 54, 181microorganisms in: 39mineral additives: 53moisture losses: 30moisture requirement: 29, 30-31moisture retention: 28myths: 48needs of: 158newspapers in: 65nitrogen loss: 49not managed: 141odors: 31, 59oxygen: 31, 48, 51pathogen destruction and: 113
250
The Humanure Handbook — Index
pH of: 53piled on the bare earth: 183piling: 29pits: 110, 113primal: 156rainfall and: 31rats and: 192root rot control: 60sanitized: 44, 45self-aeration: 51shrinking: 30spirituality and: 69spontaneous fires: 37static piles: 52stormwater filters: 59suppress plant diseases: 60tea: 60temperature: 31testing: 47, 117toilets: 103too hot: 45turning: 49,51
,
52uncured: 43unturned: 51wood ashes in: 53compost bins: 172biofilter: 173biological sponge: 173cover material used in: 172double-chambered: 172made from pallets: 177normal bin sequence: 173illustrated: 176photos: 175, 194size: 173three-chambered: 174-5constructing: 174-5photo: 175underneath the toilet: 186composting: 21,22aerosol emissions: 52aeration: 50and rats: 192animal mortalities: 62 Asian: 80, 110in China: 67, 110in Vietnam: 110batch: 179benefits: 22, 28, 32, 62bin: 173biofilters: 173bones: 56, 66browns: 36chemicals: 56, 58chlorinated chemicals: 58Clopyralid: 59contamination problems: 233continuous: 110, 179cooling phase: 41curing period: 41dead animals: 62destroy plant pathogens: 60Dicambra: 56diesel fuel: 57disposable diapers: 65dog manure: 64eggshells: 66fats: 55flies: 31for a diseased population: 141freon: 57frozen: 181greens: 36hair: 65heavy metals and: 100-101herbicides: 56Indore process: 48inoculants: 52insecticides: 56in Vietnam: 111 junk mail: 65leaching: 178legalitites: 197lime: 48, 53, 54lipids: 55mesophilic stage: 41myths: 48newsprint: 65no turning: 51odors: 31oils and fats: 55oxygen levels: 31, 48, 51pathogenic population: 141PCBs: 56, 57, 58pet manures: 64pits: 110, 113RDX: 58retention time: 178retention time, diseased popu-lations: 178sanitary napkins: 65segregation of materials: 55sewage sludge: 231slow: 26soil in: 111source separation: 233telephone books: 65TCE: 57temperature monitoring: 181curves: 182thermometer: 117thermophilic: 26, 41TNT: 56, 58toilet paper: 66toxic chemicals: 56, 58turning: 48cost: 49effects on bacterialpathogens: 51emissions: 52heat loss, cold climates: 52loss of agricultural nutrients:49loss of nitrogen: 49oxygen, and: 51unturned: 51uranium: 57, 100VOC: 59weed seeds: 62what not to compost: 55
 
wood chips: 66Composting Council: 27composting toilet systems: 103composting toilets: 103, 145,197 Alascan: 120 Aquatron: 119Biolet: 118Bio-Sun: 120Carousel: 116, 118Clivus: 115, 118commercial: 104, 106,114,118-120cover materials: 105defined: 103Dowmus: 119Envirolet: 119Guatemalan: 115Hamar: 120homemade: 104laws: 198low-temperature: 107retention time in: 107managing: 104, 105, 109multrum: 114odor prevention: 108owner-built: 107pathogen survival in: 144,145, 147Phoenix: 119priming: 108solar: 116Sun-Mar: 120Sven Linden: 120transmission of pathogensthrough low-temperature: 145Vera Toga: 118water savings: 117composting toilet systems: 103compost leachate: 178compost microorganisms: 39compost pileaeration: 110compost pit: 110, 113compost stormwater filter: 59compost tea: 60compost testing labs: 117compost thermometers: 117compost toilets: 103compost toilet systems: 19, 103Confront: 59Connecticut River: 90constructed wetland: 96, 210,212, 213cells: 214, 216defined: 210evapotranspiration: 212four components for functionalsuccess: 205, 208in cold climates: 217in greenhouse: 219, 220mulch basins: 219liners: 214plants: 216, 217single cell, diagram: 214
The Humanure Handbook — Index
251
size required per household:214, 217soilbeds: 221soilboxes: 221subsurface flow: 213, 214surface flow: 213, 214two cell, diagram: 215two types of: 213Watson Wick: 212continuous composting: 110Control Lab: 117Cornell University: 99cover material: 31, 105, 159,180coxsackieviruses: 130crops, pathogen survival on: 136CTS Toilet: 119
D
DDT: 94, 97decomposition, optimal: 46Defense Department: 58designer compost: 62detergents: 207Dicambra: 56diarrhea: 130diesel fuel: 57dioxin: 94disease: 121, 127epidemic: 79, 124disease resistance in plants: 60dogs: 29, 64dog manure: 64Dowmus: 119drains: 206drinking water: 16, 226analysis: 136chlorine and: 95quality violations: 95quantity worldwide: 16, 117duckweeds: 217nutrient absorption: 221dumps: 15Dutch Hamar: 120dwarf tapeworm: 132dysentery: 130
E
E. coli 
: 42, 46, 51, 135, 136Earthship: 219earthworms: 66Ebola: 5Echovirus: 130ego vs. the eco: 70Egypt: 231El Salvador: 230emergency toilet: 155England: 79, 229Public Health Act: 79-80sanitation in: 80English gardens: 161
Entamoeba histolytica
: 131Envirolet: 119enzymes: 53epidemic disease: 79, 124erosion: 20
Escherichia coli 
: see “
E. coli 
estuaries: 17Europe: 228, 231history: 77evapotranspiration: 212extinctions: 3, 5bird species: 3mammals: 3plant species: 4primates: 3
F
Fahm, Lattee: 101Fahrenheit: 237Fairfield, Connecticut: 234Farmers of Forty Centuries: 73Feachem et al.: 127fecal coliforms: 17, 135, 211excreted in 24 Hours: 134in bathing water: 211in laundry water: 211in natural streams: 136survival times in soil: 134fecal material, U.S. productionof: 75fecespotential bacterial pathogensin: 130potential protozoan pathogensin: 131potential viral pathogens in:130potential worm pathogens in:132fecophobia: 105, 184fertility (loss of in soils): 73fisheries: 3fish grown with humanure: 21fishing: 17fish tapeworm: 132flies: 31, 200Flatt, Hugh: 189Florida: 13flush toilets: 15, 20food waste: 13forests: 3France, water use: 20freon: 57fungi: 39, 42,43breaking down petroleum: 57enzymes replace chlorine: 57populations in compost: 39populations in fertile soil: 39thermophilic: 43
Fusarium oxysporum
: 60

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