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Effect of Nutraceuticals on Physico-chemical Properties of Sodium Caseinate Films Plasticized With Glycerol. en Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical and Biological Materials

Effect of Nutraceuticals on Physico-chemical Properties of Sodium Caseinate Films Plasticized With Glycerol. en Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical and Biological Materials

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Published by: Alberto López on Nov 14, 2012
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Effect of Nutraceuticals on Physico-ChemicalProperties of Sodium Caseinate FilmsPlasticized with Glycerol
Elizabeth Lima-Lima, Susana Altamirano-Romo, Rocı´o Rivas-Araiza,Gabriel Luna-Ba´rcenas, and Cristina Pe´rez-Pe´rezCONTENTS
Introduction........................................................................................................ 445Materials and Methods..................................................................................... 447Materials...................................................................................................... 447Preparation of Film-Forming Solutions.................................................. 447Film Formation........................................................................................... 447Measurement of Film Thickness and Physical Properties.................. 448Water Vapor Permeability......................................................................... 448Mechanical Properties............................................................................... 448Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)............................................... 448Statistical Analysis..................................................................................... 449Results and Discussion..................................................................................... 449Water Vapor Permeability......................................................................... 449Mechanical Properties............................................................................... 450Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)............................................... 450Conclusions......................................................................................................... 452References ........................................................................................................... 453
Introduction
There has been a resurgence of interest in recent years in the development of edible films for food (Debeaufort et al., 1998). Several studies have indicatedthe potential of milk proteins for use in edible films. For instance, caseinateseasily form films from aqueous solutions because of their random-coil
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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
 
nature and ability to form extensive intermolecular hydrogen, electrostatic,and hydrophobic bonds, resulting in an increase of the interchain cohesion(McHugh and Krochta, 1994).Moreover, edible films based on milk proteins were reported to beflavorless, tasteless, and flexible, and depending on the formulation, theyvaried from transparent to translucent (Chen, 1995). Hydrophilic polymers,such as proteins that contain polar groups that provide hydrogen bonding,will absorb water from the surrounding air or from the food product theycontain. Glycerol, a polyol, is well known for its plasticizing effects and itsuse in food technology. Glycerol was mixed at different concentrations tosodium caseinate solutions, generating films with good properties.Among the films investigated, edible films based on proteins showed the best mechanical properties. However, their barrier properties are variable(Kester and Fennema, 1986). The increase of cohesion between proteinpolypeptide chains was thought to be effective toward the improvement of the barrier properties of the films. For instance, the presence of calcium wasreported to decrease the water permeability of caseinate-based film(Avena-Bustillos and Krochta, 1993).The milk proteins as edible and/or biodegradable films could beinteresting because of their favorable functional properties as well as theirfood nutritional value. Sodium caseinate (SC) has the capability to carrynutraceuticals (Gontard et al., 1992; McHugh et al., 1993).The concepts of incorporating nutraceuticals into edible films to enhancethenutritionalvalueoffoodshavebeendiscussed,butfewstudieshavebeenreported.Nutraceuticalsarechemicalsfoundasnaturalcomponentsoffoodsorotheringestible forms that have been determined to be beneficial to the human body in preventing or treating one or more diseases or improvingphysiological performance (Alvı´drez-Morales et al., 2002). Calcium andvitamin C are important nutraceuticals as they play significant roles in thehumanbodytopreventcertaindiseases(Elliot,1998;Pszezola,1998).Thefilmproperties depend strongly on film composition, its formation, and themethods of its application to the products (Arvanitoyannis and Biliaderis,1998; Debeaufort et al., 1998). When calcium is added to protein-based films,thecalciumionsmayinducestaticcross-linkingandthelevelofionicstrengthmay affect protein microstructure and interactions, which would in turnimpact the mechanical and barrier properties (Kester and Fennema, 1986;Avena-Bustillos and Krochta, 1993; Mezgheni et al., 1998). Calcium has beenoneofthemostdifficultmineralstoaddtofoodsbecauseofitshighDRIvalue,itslowsolubilityatneutralpH,andthebittertasteofsomecalciumsalts.Meiand Zhao (2002) identified that Gluconal Cal (GC; Glucona America Inc., Janesville,WI,USA),amixtureofcalciumlactate andcalciumgluconate,hashigh nutritional value, good bioavailability and water solubility, and neutraltaste and successfully incorporated it into edible coatings. However, fewstudies (Mei and Zhao, 2002; Mei and Zhao, 2003; Park and Zhao, 2004)
Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical, and Biological Materials
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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
 
have been reported. The performance of vitamin C in edible films has not been evaluated.Our objectives in this study were to formulate SC film solutions that cancarry high concentrations of calcium and vitamin C, and to investigate theimpacts of calcium and vitamin C on the physico-chemical properties of the films.
Materials and Methods
Materials
The materials used for film formation include SC (Sigma C-8654, St. Louis,MO,USA)containingapprox.96%protein,and4%ashes(drybasis);glycerolplasticizer(G:SigmaG-6279,St.Louis,MO,USA),servingasplasticizerinallfilm-forming solutions, GC (Glucona America Inc.), a mixture of calciumlactate and calcium gluconate with water solubility up to 40 g/100 ml andneutral taste, and ascorbic acid (VC; Fermont. Productos QuimicosMonterrey, Mty, N.L., Mexico). All chemicals used were of reagent grade.
Preparation of Film-Forming Solutions
Aqueous solutions of 10% (w/w) SC were made with addition of 0 to 30%(w/w SC) G in the mixture. The addition nutraceuticals were 5 and 10%(w/w SC) GC, and 0.01% (w/w SC) VC in the mixture.SC and glycerol were mixed in distilled water. Solutions were heated to60
^
2
8
C approximately for 1 h while being stirred continuously. Thesamplescontainingnutraceuticalsrequired themosttime toobtaincompletedissolution of the substances. The solutions were placed in a shaking water bathwithamagneticstirrer.FinallythesolutionsweredriedoverPVCplatesat room temperature.
Film Formation
Different sizes of films were formed. The samples were cut to measure filmproperties and to establish a film thickness control equation. The small-diameter films were used for the water vapor permeability (WVP) andpuncture strength (PS); large ones for tensile strength and elongation at break (%) measurement. The volume of solution was added over PVC platesat volume constant using a thin layer chromatography spreader. The plateswere placed on a leveled surface to achieve uniform films and dried at roomcondition (25
^
2
8
C and 58
^
3% HR) for 24 to 48 h. Films used for eachproperty measurement were manufactured and stored under the sametemperature but at different relative humidity conditions.
Effect of Nutraceuticals on Physico-Chemical Properties of Sodium Caseinate Films
447
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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