Astronomy & Astrophysics
manuscript no. CFBDSIR2149˙arxivc
ESO 2012October 2, 2012
CFBDSIR2149-0403: a 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-ﬂoating planet inthe young moving group AB Doradus ?
UJF-Grenoble 1 / CNRS-INSU, Institut de Plan´etologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274,Grenoble, F-38041, France.
D´epartement de physique and Observatoire du Mont M´egantic, Universit´e de Montr´eal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montr´eal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Universit´e de Franche Comt´e, Institut UTINAM CNRS 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA deFranche-Comt´e, Observatoire de Besan¸con, BP 1615, 25010 Besan¸con Cedex, France
C.R.A.L. (UMR 5574 CNRS), Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
Using the CFBDSIR wide ﬁeld survey for brown dwarfs, we identiﬁed CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9, a late Tdwarf with atypically red
We obtained an X-Shooter spectra, with signal detectable from 0.8
m to 2.3
m, which conﬁrmed a T7spectral type with an enhanced
-band ﬂux indicative of a potentially low-gravity, young, object.
The comparison of our near infrared spectrum with atmosphere models, for solar metallicity, shows thatCFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9 is probably a 650-750K, logg=3.75-4.0 substellar object. Using evolution models, thistranslates into a planetary mass object, with an age in the 20-200 Myr range. An independent Bayesian analysis fromproper motion measurements results in a 87% probability that this free-ﬂoating planet is a member of the 50-120 Myrold AB Doradus moving group, which strengthens the spectroscopic youth diagnosis.
By combining our atmospheric characterisation with the age and metallicity constraints arising from theprobable membership to the AB Doradus moving group, we ﬁnd that CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9 is probably a 4-7Jupiter masses free-ﬂoating planet with an eﬀective temperature of
700K and a logg of
4.0, typical of the lateT-type exoplanets that are targeted by direct imaging. We stress that this object could be used as a benchmark forunderstanding the physics of the similar T-type exoplanets that will be discovered by the upcoming high contrastimagers.
The Astronomical Union deﬁnition
that the plan-etary mass range is below deuterium-burning mass(13M
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. Based on ob-servations obtained with SOFI on the NTT at ESO-La Silla(run 086.C-0655(A)). Based on observations obtained withX-Shooter on VLT-UT2 at ESO-Paranal(run 087.C-0562(A)).Based on observation obtained with WIRCAM at CFHT(programs 09AF21,10BF26 and 11BD86.
Burningham et al. 2011b;Liu et al. 2011;Luhman et al.
2011;Cushing et al. 2011;Albert et al. 2011). However,
in all these cases there are signiﬁcant uncertainties onthe actual masses of these possible free-ﬂoating planets,mostly because of the age/mass/luminosity degeneracythat aﬀects the determination of the physical parametersof substellar objects. This degeneracy can be lifted whenthe age of the source can be constrained independently,usually through cluster or association membership. Thereis however no isolated object that combine such anundisputed age constraint with spectroscopic low gravitysignatures that would be compatible with a planetarymass. There is nonetheless strong evidence that IPMOsdo exist, at least since the discovery of 2M1207B byChauvin et al.(2004) has established the existence of a
companion around a
object that wouldbe almost impossible to form through planetary formationmechanisms. This means stellar formation processes suchas cloud fragmentation (see for instanceBate 2009) or diskfragmentation (see for instanceStamatellos et al. 2011),can form planetary mass objects.Pe˜na Ram´ırez et al.(2012) has recently identiﬁed a population of IPMOs inthe
-Orionis cluster, and hinted that they could be aboutas numerous as deuterium-burning brown-dwarfs. Thiswould indicate that there is a signiﬁcant population of