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Astro Physique

Astro Physique

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Astronomy & Astrophysics 
manuscript no. CFBDSIR2149˙arxivc
ESO 2012October 2, 2012
CFBDSIR2149-0403: a 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet inthe young moving group AB Doradus ?
P. Delorme
1
J. Gagn´e
2
L. Malo
2
C. Reyl´e
3
E. Artigau
2
L. Albert
2
T. Forveille
1
X. Delfosse
1
F. Allard
4
D.Homeier
4
1
UJF-Grenoble 1 / CNRS-INSU, Institut de Plan´etologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274,Grenoble, F-38041, France.
2
epartement de physique and Observatoire du Mont egantic, Universie de Montr´eal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montr´eal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
3
Universit´e de Franche Comt´e, Institut UTINAM CNRS 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA deFranche-Comt´e, Observatoire de Besan¸con, BP 1615, 25010 Besan¸con Cedex, France
4
C.R.A.L. (UMR 5574 CNRS), Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
ABSTRACT
Aims.
Using the CFBDSIR wide field survey for brown dwarfs, we identified CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9, a late Tdwarf with atypically red
S
colour.
Methods.
We obtained an X-Shooter spectra, with signal detectable from 0.8
µ
m to 2.3
µ
m, which confirmed a T7spectral type with an enhanced
s
-band flux indicative of a potentially low-gravity, young, object.
Results.
The comparison of our near infrared spectrum with atmosphere models, for solar metallicity, shows thatCFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9 is probably a 650-750K, logg=3.75-4.0 substellar object. Using evolution models, thistranslates into a planetary mass object, with an age in the 20-200 Myr range. An independent Bayesian analysis fromproper motion measurements results in a 87% probability that this free-floating planet is a member of the 50-120 Myrold AB Doradus moving group, which strengthens the spectroscopic youth diagnosis.
Conclusions.
By combining our atmospheric characterisation with the age and metallicity constraints arising from theprobable membership to the AB Doradus moving group, we find that CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9 is probably a 4-7Jupiter masses free-floating planet with an effective temperature of 
700K and a logg of 
4.0, typical of the lateT-type exoplanets that are targeted by direct imaging. We stress that this object could be used as a benchmark forunderstanding the physics of the similar T-type exoplanets that will be discovered by the upcoming high contrastimagers.
1. Introduction
The Astronomical Union definition
1
that the plan-etary mass range is below deuterium-burning mass(13M
Jup
;Boss et al. 2003) while brown dwarfs andstars populate the mass range above is challenged bya string of recent discoveries, notably from possibleIsolated Planetary Mass Objects (hereafter IPMOs, orequivalently free-floating planets in clusters, see for in-stanceZapatero Osorio et al. 2002;Burgess et al. 2009; Haisch et al. 2010;Pe˜na Ram´ırez et al. 2011,2012), which are more likely formed like stars but reside in the planetarymass range. There are also many cases of field browndwarfs whose lower mass limit is well within the officialplanetary mass range (see for instanceKnapp et al. 2004;Burgasser et al. 2006;Cruz et al. 2009;Lucas et al. 2010;
Send oprint requests to
: P. Delorme, e-mail:
Philippe.Delorme@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr
. Based on ob-servations obtained with SOFI on the NTT at ESO-La Silla(run 086.C-0655(A)). Based on observations obtained withX-Shooter on VLT-UT2 at ESO-Paranal(run 087.C-0562(A)).Based on observation obtained with WIRCAM at CFHT(programs 09AF21,10BF26 and 11BD86.
1
http://www.dtm.ciw.edu/boss/definition.html
Burningham et al. 2011b;Liu et al. 2011;Luhman et al. 2011;Cushing et al. 2011;Albert et al. 2011). However, in all these cases there are significant uncertainties onthe actual masses of these possible free-floating planets,mostly because of the age/mass/luminosity degeneracythat affects the determination of the physical parametersof substellar objects. This degeneracy can be lifted whenthe age of the source can be constrained independently,usually through cluster or association membership. Thereis however no isolated object that combine such anundisputed age constraint with spectroscopic low gravitysignatures that would be compatible with a planetarymass. There is nonetheless strong evidence that IPMOsdo exist, at least since the discovery of 2M1207B byChauvin et al.(2004) has established the existence of a
5M
Jup
companion around a
25M
Jup
object that wouldbe almost impossible to form through planetary formationmechanisms. This means stellar formation processes suchas cloud fragmentation (see for instanceBate 2009) or diskfragmentation (see for instanceStamatellos et al. 2011),can form planetary mass objects.Pe˜na Ram´ırez et al.(2012) has recently identified a population of IPMOs inthe
σ
-Orionis cluster, and hinted that they could be aboutas numerous as deuterium-burning brown-dwarfs. Thiswould indicate that there is a significant population of 
1
 
P. Delorme et al.: A 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet in AB Doradus?
overlooked IPMOs in the solar vicinity, both in the fieldand in young moving groups and clusters. Another sourceof IPMOs could be ejected planets (e.g.Veras & Raymond2012;Moeckel & Veras 2012), since massive planets such as HR8799bcde (Marois et al. 2008,2010), if ejected from their host star, would look like regular field T dwarfs aftera few hundred Myr. Another strong evidence that IPMOsexist is the detection of a few free-floating planets bygravitational lensing bySumi et al.(2011);Strigari et al. (2012), though these objects -or at least a fraction of them- could also be regular planets orbiting at sufficientlylarge separation from their host star that the latter is notdetectable in the lensing event.The detection of IPMOs can therefore provide con-straints on ejection scenarii and on the low-mass endof the stellar mass function, though these constraintswill not be independent since it is observationally chal-lenging to imagine a way to discriminate between a5M
Jup
ejected planet and a brown dwarf of the samemass. However, the spectral energy distribution of theseisolated objects will provide useful information on thesubstellar evolution and substellar atmosphere models,especially if their age is known, and regardless of theirformation mechanisms. These constraints are especiallyvaluable because the spectral energy distribution of anIPMO is expected to be identical to the spectral energydistribution of planets with similar masses orbiting atlarge separation -hence with negligible irradiation- fromtheir host stars. In this light, such free-floating planetscould serve as benchmarks for the design and operationof the direct imaging surveys for exoplanets, notably withthe upcoming new generations planets finder instrumentssuch as SPHERE (Beuzit et al. 2008), GPI(Graham et al. 2007), or HiCIAOH (Hodapp et al. 2008). Young IPMOs of a few Jupiter masses would be interesting analogs of the exoplanets these instruments will be able to detect.Since they are not affected by the glare of a host star,it is comparatively easy to obtain relatively high signalto noise, moderate resolution spectroscopic informationso that they can serve as prototypes to understand thephysics of massive exoplanets atmospheres.We present in section 2 the detection of a low-gravity T dwarf, CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9, hereafterCFBDSIR2149, that is probably a 4-7M
Jup
free-floatingplanet. In section 3, we describe our spectroscopic datareduction and present the full Near-InfraRed (NIR) spec-trum of this object, highlighting its low gravity features.In section 4 we discuss its likely membership to the youngmoving group AB Doradus (hereafter ABDMG). In section5 we analyse its spectrum in the light of the age and metal-licity constraints that would be brought by its probableABDMG membership, and derive its fundamental physicalparameters. Finally we discuss some of the implications of this discovery.
2. Photometry of CFBDSIR2149
2.1. Discovery and identification as a late T dwarf with
s
-band excess 
The Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey InfraRed(CFBDSIR;Delorme et al. 2010) is a NIR coverage of the
Fig.1.
Finding chart for CFBDSIR2149 (
Js
-band NTTSofi image). East is left and north is up.CFHTLS/CFBDS (seeDelorme et al. 2008b) fields withavailable deep
z
band images. It covers 335 square de-grees with
-band WIRCam (Puget et al. 2004) images.Cool brown dwarfs candidates are identified from theirvery red
z
colour (see Fig.2) and CFBDSIR2149was identified as such by the standard CFBDSIR anal-ysis pipeline (seeDelorme et al. 2010). After analysingand cross-matching a stack of two 45s-long WIRCam
-band exposure from the CFBDSIR acquired on August13th and 14th, 2009, with the corresponding CFBDS-RCS2(Yee et al. 2007;Delorme et al. 2008b) 360s
z
exposure, wehighlighted CFBDSIR2149 as a
z
dropout with
z
J >
3.8.This promising candidate was confirmed by NIRfollow-up observation at the ESO-NTT telescope (run086.C-0655(A)) on 2010, September 24, with a NTT-Sofi(Moorwood et al. 1998)
-band detection (See Fig.1) en-suring this candidate was a very cool brown dwarf and nota transient source like an extragalactic supernovae or an as-teroid that could have caused our initial
-band detectionand accounted for the
z
-band non-detection. The real-timeanalysis of the NTT
-band data prompted further obser-vations of this cool brown dwarf in
and
s
, during thefollowing night. The resulting very blue
=
0.5 con-firmed it as a very late T dwarf while the neutral to red
s
0 highlighted it as a peculiar
s
-band flux en-hanced late T dwarf (see2). Note that throughout thiswork,
YJHK/
s
magnitudes are given in the
Vega
sys-tem while
z
mags are in the
AB
2.2. Near-infrared imaging: reduction and analysis 
In addition to this SOFI photometric follow-up, we ob-tained higher signal to noise photometric data in
,
and
s
from CFHT Director Discretionary Time, in December2011, as well as
C
4
on
imaging acquired in September2010. This WIRCam data, using the MKO photometricsystem, is deeper and offers a larger time-base to derivethe proper motion of CFBDSIR2149 using the WIRCamAugust 2009 detection images as a first epoch. Since
2
 
P. Delorme et al.: A 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet in AB Doradus?
WIRCam has a larger field of view than SOFI it also allowsto use more stars for an accurate photometric and astro-metric calibration.Both SOFI and WIRCam observations used a standarddithering pattern to allow the construction of a sky frameand were reduced and analysed using the same home-madepipeline. For the WIRCam observations, we used one (outof 4) 10
×
10
chips, on which the target was centred. Foreach filter, flat fielding and bad pixel removal were carriedout using ESO-
eclipse 
software package (Devillard 2001). Asky frame, constructed by median-combining the ditheredraw exposures,was subtracted to each exposure. The result-ing reduced individual exposures were cross matched us-ing
Scamp
(Bertin 2006) and combined with
Swarp
(Bertin2010), using the inverse of each image background noise asweight. This weighting particularly improved the signal tonoise of the WIRCam images which were acquired with arapidly evolving airmass, while the target was setting. Theabsolute astrometric and photometric calibrations in
J,
and
s
were carried out using the 2MASS point sourcecatalog (Cutri et al. 2003) as a reference, with 3 valid ref-erences on the SOFI field of vue and 15 on the WIRCamchip field of view. For the photometric calibration of 
z
,
and
CH 
4
on
data we used the CFHT-provided zero pointsand absorption values.We extracted the photometry and astrometry of CFBDSIR2149 and of the reference stars by Point SpreadFunction (PSF) fitting using
Sextractor 
, with a spatiallyvariable PSF model built from each science image using
PSFex 
(Bertin & Arnouts 1996;Bertin 2006;Bertin et al. 2012). The resulting photometry is shown on Table1. The
CH 
4
on
of 0.9, tracing the methane absorption bandsaround 1.6
µm
is typical of a T7
±
0.5 brown dwarf (cal-ibration by L. Albert, private communication), while thered
s
and very red
s
(see Fig.2) indicate aweak Collision Induced Absorption of 
2
(CIA), resultingin an enhanced
-band flux (seeKnapp et al. 2004, forinstance). The weak CIA would be caused by a lower thanusual pressure in the photosphere, either due to low gravity,high metallicity or a combination of both. We caution thatsuch colour diagnosis can be misleading, at least for objectsin the L/T transition where cloud coverage effects can blurthe conclusions (see the unusual blue and red
in theT2.5/T4 binary of Artigau et al. 2011). However the laterspectral type of CFBDSIR2149 (T7) places it in a tempera-ture range where models, and the associated colour diagno-sis, are usually more reliable, mainly because most cloudshave condensated at such low temperatures. This also makethe red
association with low gravity/high metallicitymore robust for late T dwarfssuch as CFBDSIR2149than itis for the red, also probably low gravity, L dwarfs identifiedbyCruz et al.(2009);Allers et al.(2010);Faherty et al. (2012).
2.2.1. WISE data
We searched the WISE (Wright et al. 2010) all-sky releasecatalog for a mid-infrared couterpart of CFBDSIR2149.There is no signal related to our target in W3 and W4channels, but we found a very faint object at its exact posi-tion in W2 and slightly offset in W1. The catalog-providedphotometry for this couterpart gives W1=17.4
±
0.47 andW2=15.99
±
0.37. Though this mid-infrared signal to noiseis extremely low, the resulting
2=3.9
±
0.4 colour isconsistent with CFBDSIR2149 being a late T dwarf (seeFigure 1 of Mainzer et al. 2011).
3. Spectroscopy of CFBDSIR2149
3.1. Spectroscopic follow-up and reduction
Given the faintness (
= 19
.
3) of CFBDSIR2149, it wasnot observed in spectroscopy with Sofi at NTT and wastherefore put in the queue of our 087.C-0562 ESO-VLT X-Shooter observations as a very high priority target. It wasobserved on September, 5 and September 27, 2011, in twoESO observing block (hereafter OB) achieving a total ex-posure time on target of 5850s, split in 4 A-B nods on slitof 2x732s each. We used 0.9
′′
slits for both visible and NIRarms.The spectra was reduced using the latest ESO X-Shooter pipeline (Modigliani et al. 2010), which produceda 2-dimensions, curvature corrected, spectrum of the NIRarm of X-Shooter from 0.99 to 2.5
µ
m and of the visiblearm, from 0.6 to 1.02
µ
m for each OB. No signal was re-trieved for wavelengths shorter than
0.8
µ
m, but a lowsignal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum of the optical far-red was recovered between 0.8 and 1.0
µ
m. The trace wasextracted using our own IDL procedures, using Gaussianboxes in the spatial dimension all along the spectral direc-tion. The noise spectrum was obtained by measuring thedispersion along 10 spectral pixels on a noise trace obtainedby subtracting the science trace by itself shifted of 1 pixel.Since the shift is much smaller than the full spectral reso-lution ( 4.2 pixels in the NIR and 6.0 in the visible), thiseffectively removes the science spectrum, but keeps the in-formation on the actual background and photon noise onthe science trace.The two resulting 1-D spectra of each OB were then di-vided by the spectrum of telluric standard stars observed just after or just before each OB and reduced and ex-tracted using the same pipeline as the science OBs. Thetwo spectra corrected from telluric absorption were thencombined through a weighted average using the inversevariance as weight to construct the science spectrum. Anoise-weighted average significantly improved the signal-to-noise ratio since the quality of data obtained on September5th was noticeably better than that obtained on September27th. Because the resulting spectrum at R
5300 has a lowSNR and most of the late T physicalparametersexplorationis carried out using lower resolution spectra, we made a slid-ing noise-weighted average on 25, 100 and 200 pixels in thespectral dimension, producing 3 spectra, at a resolution of respectively R=900, 225 and 113 in the near-infrared. Thevisible spectra was similarly binned on 400 pixels, with acorresponding resolution R=132. The noise-weighted aver-age in the spectral dimension makes use of the full resolu-tion of X-Shooter to down-weight the narrow wavelengthranges affected by OH telluric emission lines, thus improv-ing the SNR with respect to a regular average or, moreimportantly, to lower resolution observations.The same reduction and extraction procedures wereused for the NIR and visible arms of X-Shooter, but theSNR in the small common wavelength interval between the2 arms is low (about 1), which makes difficult to rescalethe visible data to the NIR data scale. Since we have no
z
detection of CFBDSIR2149, we cannot calibrate the vis-ible spectrum on photometry. We therefore caution that
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