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reported speech explicación en castellano

reported speech explicación en castellano

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Published by Andrea Rodriguez

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Published by: Andrea Rodriguez on Nov 14, 2012
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12/08/2013

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Direct Speech (El estilo directo)
Cuando queremos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho, utilizamos
elestilo directo
. Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas ydeberá ser palabra por palabra.
Ejemplos:
Play "I am going to London next week,
she said.
("Voy a Londres la semana que viene," ella dijo.)
Do you have a pen I could borrow,
he asked.
("Tienes un bolígrafo que puedas prestarme," élpreguntó.)
Play  Alice said,
I love to dance.
 
(Alice dijo, "Me encanta bailar.")
Play Chris asked,
Would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow night? 
 
(Chris preguntó,"Te gustaría cenar conmigo mañana por la noche?")
Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto)El estilo indirecto
, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesitaser palabra por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el estilo indirecto, el tiempo verbalcambia.A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que hadicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, en las frases interrogativas se puede usar "if" o"whether".
Direct SpeechReported Speech
 Present SimplePast Simple
Play"He
's
American
"
she said.PlayShe said he
was
American.Play"I
'm
happy to see you
",
Mary said.PlayMary said that she
was
happy to see me.PlayHe asked,
"Are
you busy tonight?
"
PlayHe asked me if I
was
busy tonight.
 Present ContinuousPast Continuous
Play"Dan
is living
in San Francisco,
"
she said.PlayShe said
 
Dan
was living
in San Francisco.PlayHe said, "I'm making dinner"PlayHe told me that he
was making
dinner.Play
"
Why
are
you working so hard?
"
theyasked.PlayThey asked me why I
was working
so hard.
 Past SimplePast Perfect Simple
"
We
went
to the movies last night,
"
hesaid.PlayHe told me they
had gone
to the movies lastnight.
 
PlayGreg said,
"
I
didn't go
to work yesterday.
"
PlayGreg said that he
hadn't gone
to work yesterday.Play
"Did
you
buy
a new car?
"
she asked.PlayShe asked me if I
had bought
a new car.
 Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
"
I
was working
late last night,
"
Vicki said.PlayVicki told me she
'd been working
lastnight.PlayThey said,
"
We
weren't waiting
long.
"
PlayThey said that they
hadn't beenwaiting
long.PlayHe asked,
"Were
you
sleeping
when Icalled?
"
PlayHe asked if I
'd been sleeping
when hecalled.
 Present Perfect SimplePast Perfect Simple
PlayHeather said,
"
I
've
already
eaten
.
"
PlayHeather told me that she
'd
already
eaten
"
We
haven't been
to China,
"
they said.PlayThey said they
hadn't been
to China.Play
"Have
you
worked
here before?
"
I asked.PlayI asked her whether she
'd worked
there before.
 Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
"
I
've been studying
English for twoyears,
"
he said.PlayHe said he
'd been studying
English for twoyears.PlaySteve said,
"
We
've been dating
for over ayear now.
"
PlaySteve told me that they
'd been dating
for over a year.Play
"Have
you
been waiting
long?
"
theyasked.PlayThey asked whether I
'd been waiting
long.
 Past Perfect SimplePast Perfect Simple (*NO CHANGE)
"
I
'd been
to Chicago before for work,
"
hesaid.PlayHe said that he
'd been
to Chicago before for work.
 Past Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous (*NO CHANGE)
PlayShe said, "I
'd been dancing
for years before the accident.
"
PlayShe said she
'd been dancing
for years before the accident.
Nota:
Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado (todavía es verdad) o que es en elfuturo, no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal.
Ejemplos:
 
"I'm 30 years old," she said.
She said she is 30 years old.
Play Dave said, "Kelly is sick." 
Dave said Kelly is sick.
Play "We are going to Tokyo next week," they said.
They said they are going to Tokyonext week.
Play "I'll cut my hair tomorrow," Nina said.
Nina said she is cutting her hair tomorrow.
Modal Verbs (Los verbos modales)
El tiempo verbal cambia en el estilo indirecto también con algunos de los verbosmodales:
Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
WillWoul
"
I
'll go
to the moviestomorrow,
"
John said.PlayJohn said he
wouldgo
to the moviestomorrow.Play
"Will
you
help
memove?
"
she asked.PlayShe askedme if I
wouldhelp
her move.
CanCoul
PlayDebra said,
"
Allen
canwork 
tomorrow.
"
PlayDebra saidAllen
couldwork 
tomorrow.Play
"Can
you
open
the window, please?
"
, he asked.PlayHe askedme if I
couldopen
the window.
 MustHad to
"
You
must wear
your seatbelt,
"
mom said.PlayMy mom said I
hadto wear
myseatbelt.PlayShe said,
"
You
mustwork 
tomorrow.
"
PlayShe said I
had towork 
tomorrow.
 ShallShould 
"Shall
we
go
to the beachtoday?
"
Tom asked.PlayTomasked if we
shouldgo
to the beachtoday.PlayPlay

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