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jpeg2000

jpeg2000

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Published by آم لمى
type image compression
JPEG 2000
type image compression
JPEG 2000

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11/13/2012

 
 Analog Dialogue 38-09, September (2004) 1
 JPEG 2000 Image Compression
By Christine Bako [christine.bako@analog.com]
INTRODUCTION
The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) 2000 standard,nalized in 2001, denes a new image-coding scheme usingstate-of-the-art compression techniques based on wavelettechnology. Its architecture is useful for many diverse applications,including Internet image distribution, security systems, digitalphotography, and medical imaging.A lot of confusion exists as to what JPEG 2000 is and how it compareswith other compression standards such as MPEG (Moving-PictureExperts Group) -2, MPEG-4, and the earlier JPEG. With brief comparisons to other compression standards, this article is primarilyintended to highlight some of the often misunderstood and rarelymentioned potential-become-actual benets of JPEG 2000.
 Applications
CCTV Security 
When transmitting or storing picture information,
compression
must be employed to maintain picture resolution while makingbest use of limited channel bandwidth. Compression is dened as
lossless
if full recovery of the original is available from the channelwithout any loss of information; otherwise, it is
lossy
. Standardsare required to ensure interoperability. JPEG 2000 is the onlystandard compression scheme that provides for both lossless andlossy compression. As such, it lends itself to applications thatrequire high-quality images despite limitations on storage ortransmission bandwidths.An important feature of systems based on JPEG 2000 is the abilityto extract a variety of resolutions, components, areas of interest,and compression ratios from a single JPEG 2000 code stream. Thisis not possible with any other compression standard because theimage size, bit rate, and quality must be specied on the encodeside and can not be determined or changed on the decode side.For example, a closed-circuit TV (CCTV) security system canmake use of this feature by sending a single JPEG 2000 codestream over a low bandwidth network. High-resolution imagescan be stored on a hard-disk drive (HDD), while several lower-resolution images are displayed on monitors. The operator onthe
receive
side can decide what information to extract fromthe single code stream sent. JPEG 2000 is
 frame accurate
, in that every single frame of the inputis contained in the compressed format. MPEG systems, on theother hand, reduce the amount of data through
temporal compression
(which does not encode each frame as a complete image), soMPEG compression is not
 frame-accurate
. For this reason, legalissues restrict the use of MPEG compression in some securityapplications. To get around this problem, security system andequipment providers have had to develop their own compressionschemes—or use the highly inefcient
motion JPEG
(M-JPEG)compression standard—in order to provide a compressed streamthat contains every single eld of the original. They can now use JPEG 2000 for new designs.
Internet Image Distribution
Progressive coding 
, another feature of the JPEG 2000 standard,means that the bit stream can be coded in such a way as to containless-detailed information at the beginning of the stream and moredetailed information as the stream progresses. This makes it idealfor Internet/network applications—especially with large imagesand low bandwidths—as the image can be seen instantly on thedecoding side, even with low-speed networks or image databases.The lower subbands are shown rst, and more detail is added astime progresses. The picture thus becomes sharper and moredetailed over time, and the entire image does not have to bedownloaded before it can be seen.With the low-quality image instantly available, the user at thereceiving end can decide whether to view the picture in its fullydecoded version, or to pass it by and scan the next picture instead.Clients can view images at different resolutions or quality levels[
compression rates
] making them suitable for any transmissionbandwidth, connection speed, or display device. In addition, JPEG 2000 coding provides the option to zoom in or out on aparticular area of the image—or to display a particular region of the image at a different resolution or compression rate.
High Defnition
At extreme compression levels, JPEG 2000 video starts to blur,but is still quite viewable. MPEG or JPEG artifacts are much moredisturbing to the eye, with the picture visibly broken down intosmall blocks at high compression ratios. The high image quality atmedium-to-high bit rates and contents that contain a lot of motion,lack of block artifacts, and high efciency make JPEG 2000 idealfor high-denition (HD) applications, such as digital cinema, HDrecording systems, and HD camera equipment.
http://www.analog.com/analogdialogue
Figure 1. JPEG 2000 applications.
 
2 Analog Dialogue 38-09, September (2004)
Many applications require exact bit-rate control, which only JPEG 2000 can provide. Exact bit-rate control is possiblebecause an entire frame or eld is transformed at once; it is thenbroken down into bit streams or code blocks that can be processedindependently with the techniques described below. In systemsusing DCT, quantization is the only technique used, and thismakes exact bit-rate control difcult. In order to control bit ratein DCT systems, the information must be repeatedly re-processedand re-quantized. The rate-control algorithm used in JPEG2000 truncates each bit stream to meet a specic target bit rate,adjusting the truncation and re-quantization of each code block’sdata as required. In addition to programming the target bit rate,the standard allows the user to specify a particular quality metric.In this case, the target bit rate will vary to meet the speciedquality factor, as long as the performance does not fall below aspecic
 peak signal-to-noise ratio
. The PSNR is an indication of picture quality comparable to
 perceived picture quality
.
 JPEG 2000 Code Stream
A given input image or part of the image [
tile
] is sent to a set of wavelet lters, which transform the pixel information intowavelet coefficients, which are then grouped into several
subbands
[the use of 
wavelets
in encoding was rst explained inAnalog Dialogue 30-2 (1996)]. Each subband contains waveletcoefcients that describe a specic horizontal and vertical spatialfrequency range of the entire original image. This means thatlower-frequency, less-detailed information is contained in therst transform level, while more-detailed, higher-frequencyinformation is contained in higher transform levels. For simplicity,only two levels of transform are shown here. The rst transformlevel results in subbands LH1, HH1, HL1, and LL1. Only subbandLL1 is passed on for further ltering, generating the next transformlevel and creating subbands LH2, HH2, HL2, and LL2.Equally sized code blocks, which are essentially bit streams of data,are generated within each subband. This break-down is necessaryfor coefcient modeling and coding, and is done on a code-block-by-code-block basis. In essence, the actual compression is achievedby truncating and/or re-quantizing the bit streams contained in eachcode block. These bit streams are then optimally truncated usinga technique knows as
 post-compression-rate-control 
(PCRC).Code blocks can be accessed independently. Their bit streams arecoded with three coding passes per bit plane. This process, calledcontext modeling, is used to assign information about the importanceof each individual coefcient bit. The code blocks can then begrouped according to their signicance. On the decoding side it isthen possible to extract information according to its signicance,allowing the most signicant information to be seen rst.
LL2HL2LH2 HH2HL1HH1LH1cb4cb5cb0cb1cb2cb3
PRECINCT 0 OF LH1 PRECINCT 0 OF HH1PRECINCT 0 OF HL1
ORIGINALTILET0:WAVELETTRANSFORM INTOSUBBANDS HL1,HH1, LH1, LL2,HL2, HH2, LH2
TILE0RESOLUTION0 R1LAYER0 L1 L0 Y Cb Cr Y Cb Cr Y CbPRECINCT0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2PACKET 0 PACKET 1 PACKET 2 PACKET 3 PACKET 4PACKETHEADER FORPACKET 0DATA FORCODEBLOCK0, SUBBANDHL1DATA FORCODEBLOCK1, SUBBANDHL1DATA FORCODEBLOCK2, SUBBANDLH1DATA FORCODEBLOCK3, SUBBANDLH1DATA FORCODEBLOCK4, SUBBANDHH1DATA FORCODEBLOCK5, SUBBANDHH1
WAVELET COEFFICIENT DATA IS ARRANGED INTOTHE JPEG 2000 CODESTREAM
Figure 2. ENCODE—image over wavelet transform into subbands and resolutions.
 
 Analog Dialogue 38-09, September (2004) 3
 JPEG 2000 can contain a user-dened number of layers, whichare dened by PCRC and context modeling. Each layer standsfor a particular compression rate, where the compression rate isachieved from the quantization-, rate-distortion-, and contextmodeling processes. Layer 0, for example, contains bit streams-from the lossy WT transform-that are heavily truncated, containno coding passes, and thus provide the highest compression rateand the lowest quality. Layer 16 can then contain bit streams thatare less truncated and use a higher number of coding passes, thusproviding low compression and high quality.Tiles or images are further partitioned into
 precincts
. Precinctscontain a number of code blocks, and are used to facilitate accessto a specic area within an image in order to process this areain a different way, or to decode only a specic area of an image.The JPEG 2000 bit stream is generated by arranging code blocksor precincts into an array of packets with the lower subbandscoming rst.The JPEG 2000 stream starts with a main header containinginformation such as: uncompressed image size, tile size,number of components, bit depth of components, codingstyle, transform levels, progression order, number of layers,code block size, wavelet lter type, quantization level, etc. Theentire image data, grouped in code blocks of LL, HL, LH, andHH subbands, follows the header. Data is
not 
contained in theheader information. Also, a
table of contents
can be stored on theencode side, and allows a decoder to call up a certain resolutionon demand, without rst having to decode or download the entire JPEG 2000 code stream.
DCT versus WT 
 JPEG 2000 uses the
wavelet transform
(WT) to reduce the amount of information contained in a picture, while MPEG and JPEG systemsuse the
discrete cosine transform
(DCT). It is true that the WT requiresmore processing power than the DCT, but MPEG systems requiremore than just the DCT. The DCT, or any type of 
 Fourier 
transform,expresses the signal in terms of frequency and amplitude—but only ata single instant in time. The WT transforms a signal into frequencyand amplitude over time, and is therefore more efcient. The gureson the following page demonstrate this.To obtain the same amount of information as with one WT pass,the DCT must be used for every frequency; and each of thesefrequencies must be transformed at each time instant for each8
8 pixel block. In addition, MPEG systems use inter-framecompression [motion estimation] in order to reduce the amount of data further for motion estimation. This requires storage of at leasttwo entire elds in external memory. The computation-intensivemotion estimation process requires a very powerful processor.Temporal compression can be used in JPEG 2000 systems, but itis not inherent in the JPEG 2000 standard.
TILE0RESOLUTION0 R1LAYER0 L1 L0 Y Cb Cr Y Cb Cr Y CbPRECINCT0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2 Pr0 Pr1 Pr2DECODER 1:HDD RECORDERREQUESTS FULL RESOLUTION [R0]LOSSLESS [L0]ALL COMPONENTS PRECINCT 0,PACKET 0DECODER 2:HIGH QUALITY PRINTERREQUESTS FULL RESOLUTION [R0]LOSSLESS [L1]ALL COMPONENTSDECODER 3:CCTV DISPLAYREQUESTS SMALL RESOLUTION [R1]LOSSY [L0] Y COMPONENT ONLY
Figure 3. DECODE—one JPEG 2000 stream is received by several decoders.

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