fast-twitch, strength muscles into high-endurance, slow-twitch muscles. Somehave speculated that drugs that influence these factors may be used to increase muscleactivity, although much work still remains to elucidate the mechanism.[14,15]
Combating the ProblemGiven previous attempts by the IOC to reduce and eliminate doping in sport, the prospects of halting the genetic engineering of athletes may be dim. As former IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch said when he relinquished his position, “Indoping, the war is never won.” In spite of this, we note that the recentestablishment of the WADA (and its counterpart in the United States, the US Anti-Doping Agency—USADA) offers for the first time a better coordinated andconsistent effort to combat doping in sport. In addition, drug education programs,especially those that target adolescent athletes, have the potential to change behavior and to be more cost-effective than further expanding drug testing programs. To date,however, WADA and USADA have been, at best, only marginally effective inovercoming the technological innovations of users and in reducing the prevalence of doping.Drug education programs, especially those that taaarget adolescent athletes, have the potential to change behavior and to be more cost-effective than it woulf be to further existing drug testing programs.
Questions to Ponder
It would be wonderful if athletes did not use PESs, but they do, and they are not goingto stop. As one writer observed, the genie is out of the bottle (and has been for a longtime), and there is no returning it. With so many athletes using PESs, perhaps thesesubstances should be legalized, at least in professional sports, thus leveling the playing field. Perhaps we should have two Olympic Games: one for athletes who aredrug-free and the other for athletes who use PESs.While sports play a significant role in our society and culture, the heart of the problem may be our overemphasis on winning. Winners become heroes as societycreates a culture that worships them. And, while some believe that all athletes arewinners just from competing, the fact is that an athletic competition produces onlyone first-place finisher—the winner. Not every athlete who competes wins, and for those lacking sufficient talent, PESs offer the means by which they may become“winners.” Too much fame and fortune can be gained by being a winner in sports toever think that the use of PESs will ever be completely eliminated.As witnessed by the continued television viewing of Major League Baseball gamesafter the new labor agreement's proposed, but weak, anabolic steroid testing program,fans don't appear that concerned about doping. If sport fans worldwide were polledand asked: “Are you upset by doping?” or “Are you against doping?” many, perhapseven a substantial majority, would say, “Yes.” However, a far more relevant questionis: “Are you upset enough about doping to turn off your television set and not watchsports?” Judging by the continuing profitability and popularity of both amateur and