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Optimal Conditions for the Growth of E Coli

Optimal Conditions for the Growth of E Coli

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Published by Sarah Don
This is a research paper on the optimal conditions for the growth of K-12 E.Coli bacteria. It investigates the affect of certain elements of environmental stress, including temperature, glucose concentration, salinity, pH and the presence of antibiotics, on E.Coli.
This is a research paper on the optimal conditions for the growth of K-12 E.Coli bacteria. It investigates the affect of certain elements of environmental stress, including temperature, glucose concentration, salinity, pH and the presence of antibiotics, on E.Coli.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Sarah Don on Jan 25, 2009
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09/11/2013

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Optimal Conditions for the Growth of 
E. Coli 
Sarah M. DonBiology EEISemester 4, 2008Mrs Gibson
 
Contents
1 Introduction 2
1.1 Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Cell Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Plasmid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.4 Virulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.5 Environmental Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.6 Resistance Mutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.7 Antibiotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.8 Laboratory Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.9 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Hypotheses 63 Independent Variables 64 Dependent Variable 65 Basic Test and Control Set-ups 76 Controlled Variables 87 Materials and Equipment 98 Procedure 99 Results 1010 Discussion 12
10.1 Salt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1210.2 Glucose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1210.3 pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1310.4 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1310.5 Antibiotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410.6 Further Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11 Conclusion 1512 Appendix A 18
12.1 Dilution of E. Coli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812.1.1 Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812.1.2 Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812.1.3 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
 
1 Introduction
Escherichia Coli 
(E. Coli) is part of the common microflora in the large intestine, causing no harm tothe host. Because it is a fast growing prokaryote, it is widely used in laboratories for growing culturesfor testing and experimentation. By identifying the optimal growth conditions and environmentaltolerances for the K-12 strain, E.coli may be more efficiently cultured for laboratory experimentation.
1.1 Ecology
As E. coli is part of the common microflora in the large intestine, it is accustomed to a pH of 7-8and body temperature of 37
o
C. As glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, the E. coli would beused to low concentrations. However, as glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
) is its energy source, if excess glucose wereavailable for consumption, it would be expected that the E. coli would utilise it and grow at a fasterrate. Salt (NaCl) is absorbed in the colon, so the amount of salt that the E. coli is exposed to dependson how much salt is consumed by the host organism. However, because of the mechanism of osmosis,extremely high levels as well as complete absence of salt could be lethal to E. coli bacteria.
1.2 Cell Structure
The shape of the E. Coli bacterium is cylindrical, and it is covered in fimbriae (flagellum-like structuresprotruding from the cell membrane that propel the bacterium through its medium). (Wikipedia, 2008)E. coli is also
gram-negative
, which means that its cell wall is composed of a layer of peptidoglycan,opposed to the phospholipid bilayer of gram-positive bacteria. (MedicineNet, 1999)Figure 1:
E.coli 
bacterium (Ussery, 2001)E. coli bacteria are prokaryotic, meaning that they do not have a nucleus. Instead, their DNAis continuous chromosome in the shape of a ring which is called a
plasmid 
. Because the plasmid issuspended in the cytoplasm, it is very easy for the E. Coli bacteria to take up extraneous DNA andRNA fragments and add them to their genome. This makes E. Coli an ideal laboratory specimen forstudying genetic mutation and conducting recombinant DNA experiments.2

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Andrew McCluskey added this note
Hi there - as the bacteria may have to survive being swallowed and being passed through the stomach (acidic of course), is it possible that this is the reason the bacteria were happy reproducing at a lower pH?
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