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Early Childhood Development: A report for the Royal Society of Canada

Early Childhood Development: A report for the Royal Society of Canada

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Published by The Province
It is generally accepted that adolescent and adult mental health, effective function, and well-being are the outcomes of a complex interaction of biological, social and environmental factors. Acting on a request from the Norlien Foundation of Calgary, the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences have established jointly a panel of experts to consider this important issue.
It is generally accepted that adolescent and adult mental health, effective function, and well-being are the outcomes of a complex interaction of biological, social and environmental factors. Acting on a request from the Norlien Foundation of Calgary, the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences have established jointly a panel of experts to consider this important issue.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: The Province on Nov 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/04/2012

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e Royal Society of Canada & e Canadian Academy of Health Sciences Expert Panel
Early Childhood Development 
November 2012
Prof. Michel Boivin, FRSC (Chair & Editor)Dr. Clyde Hertzman, FRSC (Chair & Editor)Dr. Ronald G. BarrDr. W. omas BoyceProf. Alison Fleming, FRSCDr.
Harriet MacMillan
Dr.
Candice Odgers
Prof. Marla B. Sokolowski, FRSCProf. Nico Trocmé
     R     E     P     O     R     T
 
282 Somerset Street West, Ottawa ON, K2P 0J6 • Tel: 613
-991-
6990 •
www.rsc-src.ca| 1
Royal Society of Canada/Canadian Academy of Health Sciences ExpertPanel (RSC/CAHS)
E
ARLY
C
HILDHOOD
D
EVELOPMENT
 
Co-Chairs and Editors:
Michel BoivinClyde Hertzman
Panel:
Ronald G. BarrMichel BoivinW. Thomas BoyceAlison FlemingClyde HertzmanHarriet MacMillanCandice OdgersMarla B. SokolowskiNico Trocmé
Research Associate:
Constance Milbrath
Production Assistant:
Agata Stefanowicz
Information Specialist:
Michele WiensThe Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences acknowledge andare grateful for the financial support of the Norlien Foundation.
Date: November 15, 2012
The report should be cited as follows:
Boivin, Michel, & Hertzman, Clyde. (eds) (in press). Early Childhood Development: adverseexperiences and developmental health. Royal Society of Canada-Canadian Academy of HealthSciences Expert Panel (with Ronald Barr, Thomas Boyce, Alison Fleming, Harriet MacMillan,Candice Odgers, Marla Sokolowski, & Nico Trocmé).
 
282 Somerset Street West, Ottawa ON, K2P 0J6 • Tel: 613
-991-
6990 •
www.rsc-src.ca| 2
Table of Contents
 
Preface
..................................................................................................................................
5
 
Chapter One: Introduction and Setting the Context
............................................................
7
 1.
 
Our perspective
............................................................................................................
8
 2.
 
The need to adopt a life course developmental perspective
.....................................
9
 3.
 
The usefulness of a bio
-
ecological population health model
....................................
10
 4.
 
The dynamic interplay between nature and nurture in development
.....................
11
 
Chapter Two: Early Adversity and the Developing Child: The evidence fromlongitudinal research
...............................................................................................................
20
 1.
 
Adverse childhood experiences predict poor mental health, behaviouraland physical health problems well into young adulthood
........................................
21
 2.
 
Evidence from prospective longitudinal studies
........................................................
22
 
a.
 
What can the new generation of longitudinal studies tell us about theinfluence of early advers
ity on children’s development?
........................................ 27 b.
 
The case of substance use/abuse .............................................................................. 31c.
 
Changing developmental trajectories through randomized preventive trials ......... 32
3.
 
Individual differences in developmental trajectories: the role of gene
-
environment interplay
.................................................................................................
34
 4.
 
Biological sensitivity to context: a non
-
specific form of gene
-
environmentinteraction
.....................................................................................................................
37
 5.
 
Summary and conclusions
...........................................................................................
39
 
Chapter Three: The Neurogenomic Science of Early Adversity and Human
 
Development
.............................................................................................................................
42
 1.
 
Early adversity and variably adaptive phenotypes
...................................................
43
 2.
 
Stress, health and development
..................................................................................
43
 3.
 
Adaptive developmental plasticity
..............................................................................
44
 4.
 
The biological plausibility of adversity
-
phenotype associations
..............................
45
 
a.
 
Stress neurobiology
............................................................................................
46 
 
i.
 
 Neurobiological transduction of adversity
.............................................
46
 ii.
 
Brain development and adversity associated with low socioeconomicstatus (SES)
............................................................................................
47
 iii.
 
 Neurobiological ‘costs’ of early adversity
.............................................
48
 
b.
 
Gene
-
environment interplay
..............................................................................
49
 
i.
 
Genes and the environment
.................................................................
49
 ii.
 
Gene by Environment (G x E) interactions
.........................................
50
 iii.
 
The future of G x E interaction investigation
.....................................
52
 iv.
 
G x E and sensitive periods
.................................................................
53
 
5.
 
Epigenetic changes as an interface between nature and nurture
............................
54
 
a.
 
 Epigenetic transduction of adversity
.................................................................
54
 
6.
 
Summary and conclusions
...........................................................................................
58
 

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