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rotate from the body wall, thus allowing inaccurate measurement.(B) External rotation: Measured in degrees away from neutral in theaxial direction (A-B). When the antebrachium rotates in, the humeralhead rotates cut. (C) Internal rotation: Measured in degrees awayfrom neutral in the abaxial direction (A-C). When the antebrachiumrotates out, the humeral head rotates in.
The dog or cat elbow is a hinge joint, whose entire motion is in one plane. Only flexion and extensionoccur within this joint: hyperextension is abnormal. See Figure B-4.FIG. B-4 Flexion-extension of the elbow. (A) Zero starting position: Theantebrachium (forearm) is placed at 90° to an axis running down thehumeral shaft. (B) Flexion is measured in degrees away from the zerostarting position (A-B). (C) Extension is measured in degrees away fromthe zero starting position (A-C). Hyperextension is measured in degreesof motion greater than full extension at 90°.
The Forearm, the Carpus, and the Forepaw (Manus)
Pronation and supination are minimal movements in the dog when compared to cat or man. The motionmainly comes from the radial-ulnar, and intermetacarpal soft tissue, not from rotation of the radial head.Such motion is to be compared to eversion and inversion of the metatarsus. See Figure B-5.FIG. B-5 Pronation-supination of the elbow. (A) Zero starting position: Theforelimb and palmar surfaces of the carpus and metacarpus are held in neutralextension and flat against an examining surface. These motions occur about aline between metacarpals 111 and IV. (B) Pronation (eversion of paw) ismeasured in degrees away from the zero starting position at the heads of themetacarpal bones (A-B). (C) Supination (inversion of paw) is measured indegrees away from the zero starting position (A-C).
The dog or cat carpus has natural motion in flexion, extension, and radial and ulnar deviation. Anyrotatory circumduction present is unmeasurable. See Figures B-6 and B-7.FIG. B-6 Flexion-extension of the carpus. (A) Zero starting position: Theextended carpus is in line with the forelimb. (B.) Flexion is measured indegrees away from the zero starting position (A-B). (C) Extension ismeasured in degrees in the opposite direction from the zero starting position(A-C).