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Chapter 17

Chapter 17

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Published by nlizarazo

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Published by: nlizarazo on Nov 15, 2012
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2003114Open Hole
Borehole GeophysicsWell Bore Seismic
High Resolution SeismicImaging—(Fixed Offset VSP,Walkaways, OBC, Salt ProximitySurveys)
Halliburton and READ provide high-resolutionimages in the vicinity ofthe borehole using a numberofdifferent techniques depending on the objectivesand the geologic environment.Areas where thesurface seismic is poor (shallow gas,subsalt,near-surface anomalies,etc.) are suited to these survey types.The techniques include VIVSP in deviatedwells,salt proximity surveys,tomographic velocity analysis,fixed offset VSP surveys (FOVSP),2-Dwalkaway surveys,3-D walkaway surveys,crosswell,simultaneous surface/borehole surveys,and focused4C Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) surveys.Halliburton and READ are industry leaders inproviding advanced source and downhole array technologies for borehole seismic.Combined,theirexpertise serves to benefit operators with reduced rigtime and improved data quality.Advanced source andreceiver technology is crucial towards obtaining amore accurate and comprehensive geological pictureofyour well,field,or reservoir.Together,Halliburton and READ can offer custom-built solutions for client’s seismic imaging field needs.For survey planning,we use the most advancedwavefront modeling software available (NORSAR™).Survey planning can be done by Halliburton andREAD or by the client using the NORSAR package.The software is also available for purchase by theclient.Multi-component arrays can be mobilized downhole or onthe seafloor to more accurately record true amplitudeinformation ofboth compressional and shear waves.Compressional and shear images can be used inconjunction for lithology and fluid indentification.Surveyscan be repeated for time-lapse views offluid movements.Downhole seismic tools can also be used to passively listen to the reservoir and to map fluid movements,fault reactivation,or active fracture monitoring.READ has a full array oftools for analyzing high-resolution seismic data for reservoir imagingincluding surveys with the sources and receivers onthe surface,in the wellbore,or any combination of the two.The company offers advanced pre-processingincluding multi-component wavefield separation andfinal imaging using Eikonal or Finite differenceanisotropic migration.
High Resolution Seismic Imaging(HRSI) Features
HRSI contains the following features:Generation ofhigh-resolution multiple freeimagesMapping ofsteep structures (such as salt flanks)Detailed velocity cubes in areas oflaterally changing velocity (shallow gas,permafrost,salt,etc)
High Resolution Seismic Imaging(HRSI) Benefits
HRSI offers the following benefits:Map structure,stratigraphy,lithology,and fluidswith higher resolution and confidence than canbe obtained with surface seismicImprove a poor data quality area or overcomeno-data areasProfiling salt dome flanksDetecting natural fracturesEnhanced seismic velocity analysisPrimary seismic reflector identificationPorosity and permeability estimationAnisotropy determinationAVO analysis
Associated Answer Products
The following answer products are associated withHigh Resolution Seismic Imaging (HRSI):Vertical Incidence VSPSynthetic SeismogramFull Wave Sonic™ Processing
Open Hole1152003
Reservoir Geophysics
Long Array Multi-ComponentAcquisition Tools
Halliburton and READ offer survey planning,dataacquisition,and data processing using multi-component long seismic arrays.These long array multi-component acquisition tools can be deployedfor geophysical measurements in the borehole and/oron the sea floor.Each tool combines Halliburton’sadvanced-source technology with READ’s industry-leading multi-component and anisotropic migrationsoftware for a complete package ofadvanced custom-designed reservoir imaging systems.Systems include:Single Boat Ocean Bottom CableGeoChain™ VSP Downhole Receiver Array HDSeis™ Downhole Receiver Arra
Single Boat Ocean Bottom Cable(OBC)
OBC cable data is recorded in a recording buoy via ahigh-speed fiber-optic telemetry connection to thebottom cable.The data interface from therecording/shooting boat to the buoy is via radiocommunication.
OBC Cable Features
The OBC cable contains the following features:Receiver line is molded with 4-componentstations (no connectors)Sample rates of:0.5 ms,1 ms,2 ms,and 4 msFour component sensors contain threegeophones and a single hydrophone and aredigitized at each stationODG-X omni-directional geophones maintainsensitivity in any orientationSystem is pressure-rated to 5,000 psi and isdesigned for water depths ofup to 2,500 meters
OBC Cable Benefits
Because the OBC cable operates with a single vesselfor source and recording,it offers significant costsavings without compromising data quality.
GeoChain VSP Downhole ReceiverArray
The GeoChain VSP array is designed for largeborehole imaging surveys and can be used in openand cased holes with standard seven-conductor cableeven in deep and hostile environments.
GeoChain VSP Receiver ArrayFeatures
The GeoChain VSP receiver array contains thefollowing features:Based on the well-proven ASR-1 downholegeophoneCan be used in wells up to 20,000 psi and withhole sizes from 3.5-in.to 22-in.Unique active cooling system (ACS™) allowscontinuous operation up to 356°F (180°C)Up to 32 satellites can be used in the array with amaximum tool spacing of200 feetAll satellite locking arms open and closesimultaneously,and the entire string can lock into a 9.625-in.well in only 30 secondsCan be run in the following configurations:8 levels – 1 ms sample rate16 levels – 2 ms sample rate24 levels – 3 ms sample rate32 levels – 4 ms sample rate
HDSeis Downhole Receiver Array
The HDSeis receiver array can be used to provide thehigher sample rates required for high resolutionseismic and facilitate high resolution surveys such asshallow 3DVSP,interwell seismic,and passive seismiclistening.
2003116Open Hole
HDSeis Array Features
The HDSeis array contains the following features:Allows up to 32 3-component levels to beacquired with sample rates of0.5 ms for all 32levelsData is transmitted uphole via high-speed fiber-optic telemetry Rated to 302°F (15C) and 20,000 psiAll channels are digitized downhole using a 24-bit Sigma-Delta converterAllows OBC cable and borehole data to beobtained simultaneously 
HDSeis Receiver Array Benefits
The HDSeis receiver array offers the followingbenefits:High sample rate acquisition using fiber-optictechnology 
Associated Answer Products
3-D VSP imaging2-D VSP imagingInterwell imagingPassive seismic monitoring

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