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Analysis of Diesel Use

Analysis of Diesel Use

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Published by Trần Trung Hiếu

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Published by: Trần Trung Hiếu on Nov 16, 2012
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case study 
 analyses of diesel use for Mine Haul and transport operations
Fortescue Metals Groups ltd • downer edI MInInG pty ltd • leIGhton contractors pty lIMIted
Diesel is a signicant energy source or the miningindustry. It is used or material transport processessuch as the hauling o ore and overburden.Trucks and trains constitute one o the keydiesel‑using activities.The understanding o the energy eciency o a haul truck or locomotive should not be limitedto the analysis o vehicle‑specic parameters.Mining companies can oten nd greater benetsby expanding the analysis to include many otheractors that aect the amount o energy usedacross an entire feet, including road gradientand elevation.The rigorous approach required by the EnergyEciency Opportunities (EEO) Program enablesa corporation to determine the energy savingsrom projects and the cost o implementing theseprojects. A systematic and thorough approachocuses eorts on the most energy intensiveprocesses, the key energy and material fows inthe process and where opportunities or increasedeciency are likely to lie.As EEO takes a data‑driven approach toidentiying energy‑savings opportunitiesby collecting and analysing energy use andproduction data (including the actors impactingon both), it can enable companies to viewcommon processes rom new perspectivesand identiy additional opportunities.This Case Study aims to provide miningcompanies with examples o comprehensiveanalyses o diesel use in mining operations usedby
F M G l, d edI
Mining Py Ld
Lighn Cnc PyLimid
. It provides several examples o analyticaltechniques that have been used in the miningsector to develop a rigorous understandingo energy and material fows, and enable theidentication o energy savings or haul truckoperations and rail operations.This Case Study demonstrates analyses o dieseluse in trucks by trending energy data over time,development o models and simulations, useo indicators, and benchmarking, includingtheoretical benchmarking. It also shows how anEnergy‑Mass Balance (EMB) has been appliedto rail operations. All o these processes can beused by companies to understand energy use,manage energy perormance, improve businessdecision making and identiy potential energyeciency opportunities.
dIesel use In MInInG operatIons
As o 2008–09, 40 reporting EEO companies inthe mining sector consumed 308 PJ o energyo which 52.5 PJ was diesel (17%) or haulageand electricity generation. These EEO miningcompanies had identied 3 PJ (or 6%) wortho savings directly related to diesel use. Thesecompanies adopted 66% o these identiedsavings in diesel use.
results at a Glance
Fc Ml Gp
identied and quantiedthe energy costs associated with stopping haultrucks unnecessarily, which equated to 361 kL(13,935 GJ)
o diesel per annum or the Caterpillar777 feet and 407 kL (15,710 GJ) o diesel perannum or the Terex 3700 AC feet or a singlestop sign per payload cycle.Fortescue also ound additional savings througha change to the engine control unit o the haultrucks. Modelling showed a 2.3% reduction inuel consumption, with an increase in cycle timeo 1.8%, resulting in a feet‑wide uel savings o 232 kL (8,955 GJ) o diesel per annum.In rail operations, Fortescue ound that theinstallation o an automatic start‑stop systemwould reduce idle time, with savings estimated at675 kL (26,055 GJ) o diesel per annum. Numericalmodelling also ound that savings o between300 kL (11,580 GJ) to 500 kL (19,300 GJ) o dieselcould be achieved by reducing the speed o trainsto reduce waiting times at crossing points.
d edI Miig
developed perormanceindicators that use an ‘equivalent fat haul’calculation to account or elevation changeson a specic mine route. The indicators providea more consistent measure o true energyperormance, enabling the company to trackenergy intensity over time. The Commodoreopen‑cut coal mine in South East Queenslandhas been used as the pilot site or energy‑eciency improvements at DEDIM. The energyintensity o the Commodore mine has improvedby 18.2% over ve years.
Lighn Cnc
developed a Best TruckRatio model to evaluate and benchmark theeciency o feet operations across a single siteand multiple operations, where the nature o thework undertaken varied greatly.This model provides an indication o how ecienttheir feet is in comparison with what is practicallyand realistically possible. It is providing a rigorousanalytical tool which Leighton is using to supportdecision making processes.
1 All uel conversions reerence the Department o ClimateChange and Energy Eciency,
National GreenhouseAccounts (NGA) Factors
, July 2010.
truck operatIons In MInInG
Trucks are used to haul overburden and ore romthe pit to a dump site, stockpile or to the nextstage o a mining process. Their use is scheduledin conjunction with other machinery, such asexcavators, loaders and diggers, according tothe site layout and production capacity.
p  f d edI Miig p l
Trucks use a signicant amount o diesel, and areexpensive to purchase and maintain. Operatingprocedures infuence energy use and maintenancecosts. Truck velocity, especially cornering speeds,braking patterns and road surace characteristicscan aect tyre wear and replacement costs.In open cut mining, many parameters can aect theeciency o the feet, such as:
Mine plan and mine layout
Speed, payload and cycle time
Tyre wear and rolling resistance
Age and maintenance o the vehicles
Dump site design
Idle time
Engine operating parameters and transmissionshit patternsFortescue Metals Group, Downer EDI Mining, andLeighton Contractors, have each developed athorough analytical method to investigate energyuse in their haul truck operations.
enerGy eFFIcIency opportunItIescase study 
FortesCue MetaLs GrouP
The Fortescue Metals Group Ltd is a rapidly‑growing iron ore company operating inWestern Australia. Fortescue’s Chichesteroperations consist o the Cloudbreak andChristmas Creek sites, which are currentlymining at the rate o 55 million tonnes perannum. With urther planned expansions atthe Solomon deposits, Fortescue’s productionis planned to increase to 155 million tonnesper annum by 2013. When the assessmentwas undertaken, Fortescue was predominantlyusing Caterpillar 777 and Terex 3700 haul trucksin these sites, some o which were owned andoperated by mining contractors.
analysIs and opportunIty IdentIFIcatIon
The data drawn rom real‑time truck data,uel records, knowledge o the mine plan andproduction cycles, enabled the development o models and simulations which allowed Fortescueto examine the energy use and productivity o existing practices, and explore how changeswould aect the eciency o feet operations.
truck operatInG Mode
Fortescue examined the range o uel consumptionrates, trip distances, vehicle speeds, and otherparameters to understand energy use in dierentmodes o operation.The time spent during each mode o operationis presented in Figure 1. There are ve modesdened within a single payload cycle, namely:
Travelling while empty
Stopped while loaded
Travelling while loaded
Stopped while emptyThe vertical axis o the graph in Figure 4 illustratesthe amount o time spent in each operating mode,and indicates that the greatest amount o time isspent stopped while empty.
enerGy analysIs oF truck operatIons
data collectIon and MeasureMent
There are several data sources that can be used asinputs to an energy eciency analysis o haul trucks.Mining companies typically maintain recordso total diesel use across the mining feet. Insome cases the uel consumption o individualtrucks is measured by recording the amount o uel that is lled into each vehicle, while otheroperations simply measure total uel dispensedto the feet. Fortescue was able to acquire dataor uel deliveries to each haul truck rom theiruel management system, and those o theircontractors. These accounting systems arenecessary or compliance with Australia’s diesel uelrebate legislation. Diesel using EEO corporationscan leverage these record‑keeping systems toaddress some o the Key Requirements o theEEO Assessment Framework.Many mining vehicles have onboard datacollection capabilities. Fortescue’s feet o Caterpillar 777 trucks used the onboard VitalInormation Management System (VIMS) tocapture inormation rom sensors and controllersthroughout the vehicle, enabling detailedanalysis o vehicle perormance and engineoperating conditions.Fortescue worked closely with Caterpillar todevelop a detailed understanding o relevant VIMS parameters. For many o the values recorded,it was important to understand how the VIMSsystem determined when each mode o thepayload cycle started and stopped.In addition to the quantitative data available romuel and vehicle systems, Fortescue ound it useulto also gather qualitative inormation. Many actorsaect the energy eciency o the trucks, such as:the diversity o routes; truck utilisation patterns(which can increase the complexity o the analysis);historic inormation on mine development; siteproduction; and other contextual details thatenable a more comprehensive understanding o uel records and truck utilisation data.
analyses oF dIesel use For MIne haul and transport operatIons

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