results at a Glance
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identied and quantiedthe energy costs associated with stopping haultrucks unnecessarily, which equated to 361 kL(13,935 GJ)
o diesel per annum or the Caterpillar777 feet and 407 kL (15,710 GJ) o diesel perannum or the Terex 3700 AC feet or a singlestop sign per payload cycle.Fortescue also ound additional savings througha change to the engine control unit o the haultrucks. Modelling showed a 2.3% reduction inuel consumption, with an increase in cycle timeo 1.8%, resulting in a feet‑wide uel savings o 232 kL (8,955 GJ) o diesel per annum.In rail operations, Fortescue ound that theinstallation o an automatic start‑stop systemwould reduce idle time, with savings estimated at675 kL (26,055 GJ) o diesel per annum. Numericalmodelling also ound that savings o between300 kL (11,580 GJ) to 500 kL (19,300 GJ) o dieselcould be achieved by reducing the speed o trainsto reduce waiting times at crossing points.
d edI Miig
developed perormanceindicators that use an ‘equivalent fat haul’calculation to account or elevation changeson a specic mine route. The indicators providea more consistent measure o true energyperormance, enabling the company to trackenergy intensity over time. The Commodoreopen‑cut coal mine in South East Queenslandhas been used as the pilot site or energy‑eciency improvements at DEDIM. The energyintensity o the Commodore mine has improvedby 18.2% over ve years.
developed a Best TruckRatio model to evaluate and benchmark theeciency o feet operations across a single siteand multiple operations, where the nature o thework undertaken varied greatly.This model provides an indication o how ecienttheir feet is in comparison with what is practicallyand realistically possible. It is providing a rigorousanalytical tool which Leighton is using to supportdecision making processes.
1 All uel conversions reerence the Department o ClimateChange and Energy Eciency,
National GreenhouseAccounts (NGA) Factors
, July 2010.
truck operatIons In MInInG
Trucks are used to haul overburden and ore romthe pit to a dump site, stockpile or to the nextstage o a mining process. Their use is scheduledin conjunction with other machinery, such asexcavators, loaders and diggers, according tothe site layout and production capacity.
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Trucks use a signicant amount o diesel, and areexpensive to purchase and maintain. Operatingprocedures infuence energy use and maintenancecosts. Truck velocity, especially cornering speeds,braking patterns and road surace characteristicscan aect tyre wear and replacement costs.In open cut mining, many parameters can aect theeciency o the feet, such as:
Mine plan and mine layout
Speed, payload and cycle time
Tyre wear and rolling resistance
Age and maintenance o the vehicles
Dump site design
Engine operating parameters and transmissionshit patternsFortescue Metals Group, Downer EDI Mining, andLeighton Contractors, have each developed athorough analytical method to investigate energyuse in their haul truck operations.
enerGy eFFIcIency opportunItIescase study