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Catalysts in Combustion Chamber of an Ic Engine

Catalysts in Combustion Chamber of an Ic Engine

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Published by PRASAD326
lean combustion
lean combustion

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Published by: PRASAD326 on Jan 26, 2009
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01/03/2011

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Paper presentation
On
Presented by
 K. Pandu Ranga Vara Prasad S. Harsha Prasad Lanka
III/IV B.Tech (M.E) III/IV B.Tech (M.E)
E-Mail:prasad06326@yahoo.co.in E-Mail: harsha_lanka2020@yahoo.com
 GUDLAVALLERUGUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGEENGINEERING COLLEGEKRISHNA DISRICTKRISHNA DISRICT--
ABSTRACT
 
The lean combustion of an SI engine has been recognized as one of themost promising method of further improvement of fuel economy. According toautomotive pollution point of view, exhaust emissions as NOx, CO &HC are reduced because of abundance of oxygen and lowering of peak temperature.The present study was aimed at ascertaining the benefits of employing
catalysts in the combustion chamber
of an
SI engine
. In our study we have tried tocombine the concept of catalytic coating and lean burn to improve performance of an SIengine. The literature study has revealed that there is enormous potential for 
catalyticcoatings
in the
automotive engines.
We have chosen 150CC BAJAJ scooter engine in our study because thesetwo stroke engines are one of the greatest monsters that could demolish the atmosphere.In our investigation we have used
a silver catalyst
and
nickel catalyst
in 150CC engine.Experiments were conducted using state-of-the-art instrumentation comprising of PC based engine combustion analyzer equipment and exhaust analyzer.As the
result
of coating of catalysts such as nickel and silver the
Brakethermal efficiency
of the engine has been increased by nearly
10% to 30%. The result also indicates the reduction of,
70% to 90% of CO,
10% to 20% of HC &
15% to 25% of fuel consumption.
 
INTRODUCTION:
Due to the increasing cost and uncertain supply of petroleum in recentyears, there have been strenuous effects to make spark ignition and compression enginesmore efficient. One of the most promising methods as far as SI engines are concerned isthe lean burn engine.There are several methods adopted to burn the lean mixture efficiently.Recently use of catalysts in the combustion chamber is being investigated to improve thecombustion process by increased chemical activity of the charge prior to ignition.The catalyst are used in the form of coating on the walls or in any form toinitiate combustion and make it burn faster, then the advantage improved efficiency can be obtained in addition to lower exhaust emissions.This new concept of catalytic activation of the charge for lean combustionhas been tried in this work and its effect on the combustion process has been investigated.The influence of various catalysts such as silver and nickel are determined.
OBJECTIVE OF THIS PAPER:
 
To develop a new type of combustion chamber, called catalytic combustionchamber in order to make the combustion of lean mixture faster.
To modify the existing combustion chamber suitable for fast burning of leanmixtures.
To obtained increased efficiency and lower exhaust emissions.
To investigate the combustion characteristics of lean mixtures so that it could beemployed later on in the existing engines with minimum modifications at a lower cost.
CONCEPT OF CATALYTIC COMBUSTION:
THE CATALYST:
First of all, the catalyst must be capable of withstanding continuesand cyclic operation at very high temperatures, ideally as high as 1600’C, withoutdegradation of either catalyst or physical properties. This requires the use of highmelting point materials with good thermal shock properties; the catalyst must have alow intrinsic pressure drop. Finally, the catalyst activity must be high enough to permit catalyst ignition at reasonably low temperatures. This facilitates rapid reliablelight of and stable operation.Combustor catalyst have been operate at temperature over 1650’Cwithout loss of low- temperature activity long- term testing of high temperaturecatalysts is needed.With the discovery that heterogeneous catalyst can be used to promotestable ultra lean thermal combustion at heat release comparable to those of conventional combustors. It as become feasible to consider catalytic system for replacement of conventional combustor. In the catalytic combustor, homogeneousthermal combustion occurring in parallel with heterogeneous reactions at the catalystvalve is inducted by a hot boundary layer, fixed in space by the catalytic surface.
NICKEL AND SILVER METAL CATALYST IN THE COMBUSTIONCHAMBER:
The use of nickel and silver catalyst in the combustion chamber of aninternal combustion engine that operates with lean burn concept offers an opportunity todevelop an engine emits particularly low level of HC, CO &improved fuel economy.
CONCEPT OF CATALYTIC PRECHAMBER:

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