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Tcp

Tcp

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Published by Shakil Ahmed

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Published by: Shakil Ahmed on Nov 18, 2012
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DataCommunicationAndNetworking
October 22
2012
Submitted BY : CH AHSAN ISHAQUEReg No: 14294Programme: BBA 8-BSubmitted to : SIR KHURAM
 
Assignment No.1TCP/IP
 
 
Introduction:
TCP/IP model is Internet reference model and also referred as DoD (Department of Defense) orARPANET reference model. For computer network protocol design and communication overnetwork, this model uses abstraction that is based on a layered system of networkarchitecture just like in aOSI model. 
TCP:
TCP stands for
Transmission Control Protocol
 
IP:
IP stands for
Internet Protocol
 
Layers:
It has four construct layers, each with its own protocols. From highest to lowest, the layersare:
i.
 
Application Layer :
 
Top most layer is the Application Layer.
 
It deals with process-to-process.
 
The communications partners are often called
 peers
 
 
The higher levels protocols such asSMTP,FTP,SSH,HTTP,etc operate.
ii.
 
 
Second level is theTransport Layerwhere the connection protocols such asTCP,exist.
 
Other popular Transport Layer Protocols areUDP,DCCP,GTP,SCTP,etc.
 
It deals with host-to-host.
 
This layer not only enables opening and maintaining connections but also ensures thatthe message packets are received properly.
 
iii.
 
 
At third level is theInternet Layer.
 
Which defines IP address system and the routing schemes for navigating packets fromone IP address to another.
 
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary protocol in the Network Layer.
 
It deals with internetworking.
 
Sending data from the source network to the destination network , this process iscalled routing.
 
Some examples of Internet Layer protocols areIPv4,IPv6,ICMP,IGMP,etc.
iv.
 
Network Access Layer:
 
In the TCP/IP architecture, the Data Link Layer and Physical Layer are normaly groupedtogether to become the Network Access layer.
 
It is fourth level layer.
 
It defines the low-level protocols used for signaling and communication.
 
Some examples of Low level protocols in Network Access Layer arePPP,FDI,Frame Relay,ATM,GPRS,etc. In the following illustration, each layer of the TCP/IP model corresponds to one or morelayers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model proposed bythe International Standards Organization (ISO).

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