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2012-11-19 Constant Multiple and Addition Rules for Derivatives

2012-11-19 Constant Multiple and Addition Rules for Derivatives

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Published by: samjshah on Nov 18, 2012
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12/04/2012

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 1 
Name:_______________________ Date assigned:______________ Band:________ Calculus | Packer Collegiate Institute
Introduction to Simple Properties of Derivatives
 
Section 1: The obvious and the non-obvious
1.
 
Use
Wolfram|Alpha
to find the derivative. Even if you think you know the derivative, use the program.
(a)
 
7
( ) 2
 f x x
(b)
 
7
( ) 5
 f x x
 
(c)
 
7
( ) 1.11
 f x x
 (d)
 
11
( ) 8
h x x
(e)
 
11
( )
h x h
 
(f)
 
11
( ) 2.3
h x x
 
 
2.
 
Use
Wolfram|Alpha
to find the derivative. Even if you think you know the derivative, use the program.
 
(a)
 
3 2
( )
 j x x x
(b)
 
3 2
3( ) 4
 j x x x
(c)
 
3 2
( ) 122
 j x x x
 
 
3.
 
For the following, first make an educated guess the derivative of all four functions below .Then, after you make your guess, use
Wolfram|Alpha
to find the derivative of all four functions.
 
(a)
 
3 2
( )
k x x x
 Guess:_________________________ W|A:__________________________ (b)
 
2 2 4
( ) 2 4 3
k x x x x
 Guess:_________________________ W|A:__________________________ (c)
 
62
( )
xk x x
 Guess:_________________________ W|A:__________________________ (d)
 
3 22
3( )2 1
 x xk x x
 Guess:_________________________ W|A:__________________________ 
The important mathematical conclusion:
 
 2 
Section 2: WHY?
You have seen from Wolfram|Alpha that we can easily find the derivatives of simple functions like
7
( ) 5
 f x x
 and
7
( ) 2
g x x
. You know what we
re aiming for:
deep understanding.
So you
re going to investigate why thisworks.As usual, we
ll start simple. Let
s investigate
2
( )
a x x
,
2
( ) 2
b x x
,
2
1( )2
c x x
, and
2
( )
d x x
 
. The e
2
( )
a x x
 
2
( ) 2
b x x
 
2
1( )2
c x x
 
2
( )
d x x
 
 
What does the coefficient in front of the
2
 x
part of the equation
do
? How does it transform the parentfunction?

 

xy

 

xy

 

xy

 

xy
 
 3 
Now let
s look at the derivative of these functions at
1
 x
:If you were to draw the tangent lines toeach of these four functions at
1
 x
, whatdo you notice about the slopes of thesetangent lines?Does this make sense based on yourgraphical understanding of what thecoefficient in front of the
2
( )
 x
does to theparent graph?Now we
re going to look at this algebraically:
2 22 2 2000020
2 )( ) ( )'( ) lim( ) ( )( )lim2lim(2 )limlim(2 )(2
hhhhh
 x h xa x x x h x xh xh hhh x hh x hh x xh
 
200000022 2 22 2 22
2( ) 2( )'( ) lim( ) ( )2( )lim(2 )lim4 2lim(4 2 )limlim(4 2 )2 ) 2(442 ) (2
hhhhhh
 x h xb x x h x xh xh xh hhh x h xh h x xh h xh x h x
 
0002 22 2 22 2 22000
0.5( ) 0.5( )'( ) lim( ) ( )0.5( )lim(0.5 )lim0.5lim( 0.5 )li2 ) 0.5(mlim( 0.5 )0.5 ) (0.5
hhhhhh
 x h xc x x h x xh xh xh hhh x hh x xh h x xh h x xh
 
We learned from
Wolfram|Alpha
that the
second term
in the binomial expansion is the most important (all theother terms disappear). Circle all the terms above that involve the second term in the expansion. (The firstone has been done for you.)Algebraically, we see that a coefficient in front of the parent function
2
( )
a x x
affects the derivative. How?

xy
 b(x)=2x^2a(x)=x^2c(x)=1/2 x^2d(x)=-x^2

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