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Organizational Climate

Organizational Climate

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organizational climate
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UNIT
11
ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
Structure
IntroductionObjectivesConcept of Organizational Climate
1
1.3.1
Concept of Organization
11.3.2
Concept of Climate
11.3.3
Concept of Organizational ClimateParameters of Organizational Climate ofa School
11.4.1
Dimensions of School Climate
11.4.2
Types of Organizational ClimateSchool Climate and EffectivenessRole of Teachers in School EffectivenessOrganizational EvaluationLet Us Sum UpUnit-end ActivitiesPoints for Discussion11.1 1 Answers to Check Your Progress11.12 Suggested Readings
11.1
INTRODUCTION
The main aim of formal education is to produce human beings who are able to appreciate thebenefits ofeducation and contribute to development ofthe community in different spheres of life,be it political, moral, social, economic or technological. A school is not merely a centre fordisseminating information and knowledge. Most governments see education as an importantinvestment and, therefore spend large sums of the tax payers' money each year for provision ofeducation at all levels. Thus, there is a serious concern on the part of the government to ensurethat the money provided for education is wisely spent. There are a number of resultantadministrative, financial and political problems which require attention. Educational reformshave generally neglected the psychological life of schools or organizational climate which holdskey to the success of reforms. This climate, in fact, can be used to ensure the success of newprogrammes. It is important to examine the concept of organizational climate and understand itsimplications.
11.2 OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to:define the concept of organizational climate;state the different dimensions and types of school climate;relate school climate to school effectiveness;state the need for organizational evaluation; andexplain the role of a teacher in school effectiveness.
11.3
CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
11.3.1
Concept of Organization
Human beings have always lived in organized groups. Initially, group activities were simplelike gathering food, migrating or defending the security of the group. The outcome of this
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School
Management
group effort was mainly that it gave people a chance to pool their talents and efforts for attaininglarger goals such as building and protecting their communities. The group also gives it a distinctidentity. Later on, specialised nature of functions enabled individuals to concentrate on tasks thatthey were best at, instead of doing every task which was required for survival and progress. Thissort of group activity requires co-operation without which members may work at cross-purposesand thus miss the benefits of association. To achieve this co-operation and thereby the desiredgoals, some system of structural relationships had to be established. This type of a system of grouprelationship built on co-operation, is basically the meaning of an organization. In a nutshell, anorganization can be seen as two or more people working co-operatively towards a commonobjective or a set of objectives. This system of co-operation is made up of several components: thehuman element, physical element, work element and coordination element. All these componentsput together collectively can be thought of as an organization.Thus, an organization can be viewed as a social system of co-operation that is designed to enhanceindividual effort at goal accomplishment.
11.3.2 Concept of Climate
Organizations differ in many respects
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their goals, ethnic composition of their population etc. yetone can sense or 'feel' the individuality of an organization. Sometimes, this individuality is labelledas the atmosphere of the organization. Other similar commonly used terms are tone of theorganization, environment, personality of the organization or organization's climate. This 'feeling'which enables us to know that one organization is different from another is relatively intangible,yet we have some proof of the atmosphere of one organization differing from that of another. Ifwe observe the behaviour of people in an organization we get proof of this. For example, in oneorganization members may seem relaxed and at ease with each other while in another we may findgreater tension which is seen on members' faces, their speech, how they work etc. In someorganizations, the boss may be showing authority and status, generally empahsising formality indealing with others while in others, he may be informal in his behaviour without reducing theimportance af his role in the system. These subtle differences which characterise the psychologicalenvironment are the domains of the climate ofan organization. The term 'climate' is coined to referto the general feelingltone of persons in groups towards each other and some of the attitudes theyreveal in their behaviour.
11.3.3 Concept of Organizational Climate
Organizational climate is a term that was probably first used by Cornell in 1955. He used the termto denote a "delicate blending of interpretations or perceptions by persons in the organization oftheir jobs or roles in relationship to others and their interpretation of the roles of others in theorganization". He interpreted organization in the sense of a formal structure. The term organizationalclimate has been defined in different ways by different writers. Argyris (1957) used the term'personalityYor organizational climate while some others referred the term as 'a general flow ofbehaviour and feeling' and felt the organizational climate to be the interaction betweenenvironmental and personal variables of members of a group or groups which operate in anorganization. Organizational climate is created by the interaction, with one another, of theorganizational components, namely culture, structure, system, leadership behaviour andpsychological needs of the members of the organization.We can conclude from the above that organizational climate can be discussed in terms of how itis perceived or felt by members of the organizational members. Thus a climate may be seen ashostile or supportive, as conducive to achievement or stifling and so on.
 
Check Your ProgressNotes
:
a) Write your answers in the space given below.b)Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
1.
What is an Organization?
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2.
Define climate in
3-4
lines.
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3.
Three authors, viz., Argyris, Halpin and Forehand have used three different termsfor the concept of organizational climate. Which one do you consider the best andwhy?
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11.4
PARAMETERS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATEOF SCHOOL
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11.4.1 Dimensions of School Climate
School climate is a multi-dimensional concept. It helps us to understand how schools differ intheir climate, what causes these variations and how these underlying influences affect schooleffectiveness. Certain adjectives have been used which describe different dimensions of theclimate. Halpin and Croft identified eight dimensions of school climate. The four characteristicsof these dimensions need to be understood:i)They are conceived as presented in operational terms,ii) They comprise two categories of behaviours, (a) group i.e. teachers' behaviour and(b) leader's i.e. principal's behaviour,iii) In case of each set of four behaviours two are negative and two are positive. Thevariations in the climate arise due to the complex web of interacting positive andnegative behaviour on the part of teachers and Principals,iv) Variations in the tjrpology of climate is built up due to high, average and low levels ofbehaviour exhibited under each dimension.Now let us understand different dimensions of school climate.The Headmaster or the Principal is the formal head of the school organization and is the leaderof the school community, which is made up of pupils, teachers, headmasters, clerical and class-IV staff.
A
continuous interaction among them takes place and the Principal's behaviour and hisrelation with teachers and interaction and communication flow among the teachers, create an
Organizational Climate

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