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Published by: John Wanyoike Makau on Nov 19, 2012
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Operational Amplifiers: Basics and Design Aspects
A tutorial by Jonathan Ames
 
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Table of Contents1. Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Basics................................................................4
1.1. Symbols and Schematic.....................................................................................41.2. Kirchhoff’s Current Law applied to Op-amps....................................................61.3. Input/Output Impedance.....................................................................................81.4. Supply voltages.................................................................................................101.5. Open/Closed Loop Gain, Positive/Negative Feedback.....................................111.6. Frequency Response.........................................................................................121.7. Basic Op-Amp Circuits.....................................................................................131.7.1. Inverting amplifier....................................................................................131.7.2. Non-inverting amplifier............................................................................141.7.3. Comparator...............................................................................................151.7.4. Voltage follower.......................................................................................16
2. Op-amp Circuits.....................................................................................................18
2.1. Derived Op-Amp Circuits.................................................................................182.1.1. Summation amplifier................................................................................182.1.2. Integration.................................................................................................192.1.3. Differentiation...........................................................................................202.1.4. Differential amplifier................................................................................212.2. Applied Op-Amp Circuits.................................................................................222.2.1. Audio amplifier.........................................................................................222.2.2. Instrumentation amplifier..........................................................................242.2.3. Precision full-wave rectifier......................................................................262.2.4. Voltage-to-Current converter....................................................................27
3. Op-Amp Practical Considerations........................................................................29
3.1. Input/Output Offset Voltage.............................................................................293.2. Input Bias Current / Input Offset Current.........................................................293.3. Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)........................................................293.4. Output Short-Circuit Current............................................................................30
4. Op-amp Circuit Design..........................................................................................315. Conclusions..............................................................................................................396. References................................................................................................................41
 
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  Preface
The objective of this tutorial is to provide students with a means of better understanding the operational amplifier (op-amp). This comprehension is facilitated byfirst considering some of the fundamentals of op-amps, and from there using KCL circuitanalysis to explore and develop common op-amp circuits. Next, some practicalconsiderations are covered that view the op-amp from a real-world perspective whichvaries from the ideal. Finally, an op-amp circuit is actually constructed on a breadboardand oscilloscope prints are included to describe its operation and results. By readingthrough this tutorial a student should have a better understanding concerning operationalamplifiers and how they are analyzed.

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