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Embedded System

Embedded System

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Published by Assini Hussain
Lecture Notes of Embedded System; Reference:- Raj Kamal
Lecture Notes of Embedded System; Reference:- Raj Kamal

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Published by: Assini Hussain on Nov 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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08.716 Embedded System Module 1
Software embedded into the system:
Software is like the brain of the system
Processor in embedded system executes software for a specific application
Instruction codes and data are placed in the ROM or flash memory
Software is called ROM image
ROM image in a system memory is shown below:
Image consists boot-up program, stacks address pointers, program counter address pointers, application programs, ISRs, RTOS, input data and vector addressesCoding of software in machine codes:
During coding, programmer defines the addresses and corresponding bytes or bits at eachaddresses
Machine code based coding
Time consuming method
Programmer must understand processor instruction and their machine codesSoftware in processor specific assembly language:
Program or a small specific part can be coded in assembly language using assembler 
Assembler is software used for developing codes in assembly
 Needed for Invoking Processor Specific Instructions
Requires understanding of the processor and instruction set.
A program or a small specific part coded in the assembly language using an Assembler (software used for developing codes in assembly).
Department of ECE, VKCETPage 1
08.716 Embedded System Module 1
Three steps when using assembly language before finally burned at the ROM:1.'Assembler',2.'Linker' and3.'Locator'
Conversion Process for Assembly to ROM image:
Assembler translates assembly language to machine codes
Linker links the machine codes with other required codes like standard code for delayfrom library.
Loader performs reallocating the codes after finding the physical memory addressesavailable
Reallocated codes are located as ROM image and permanently placed at the addressesavailable in ROM
Device programmer takes the ROM image file and burns the image into the PROM or flashSoftware in high level language:
Time consumption can be reduced by developing software in high-level language like C,C++, VC++ or Java
 Need only to understand hardware organization
Different programming layers in typical embedded C software is shown below:
Department of ECE, VKCETPage 2
08.716 Embedded System Module 1
Process of converting a C program into ROM image is shown below:
A compiler generates the object codes and assembles the codes according to the processor instruction set and other specifications
C compiler for embedded system uses a code optimizer that optimize before linking.Software tools for designing embedded system:
Department of ECE, VKCETPage 3

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