Having introduced the basics of Weyl geometry our starting action is the Weylinvariant JordanBransDickelike action involving the scalar
φ
ﬁeld and thescalar Weyl curvature
R
Weyl
S
[
g
µν
,A
µ
,φ
] =
S
[
g
µν
,A
µ
,φ
]
⇒
116
π
d
4
x

g

[
φ
2
R
Weyl
(
g
µν
,A
µ
)
−
12
g
µν
(
D
µ
φ
)(
D
ν
φ
)
−
V
(
φ
) ] =116
π
d
4
x

g

[ (
φ
)
2
R
Weyl
(
g
µν
,A
µ
)
−
12
g
µν
(
D
µ
φ
)(
D
ν
φ
)
−
V
(
φ
) ] (8)where under Wey scalings one has
φ
=
e
−
Ω
φ
;
g
µν
=
e
2Ω
g
µν
;
R
Weyl
=
e
−
2Ω
R
Weyl
;
V
(
φ
) =
e
−
4Ω
V
(
φ
)

g

=
e
4Ω

g

;
D
µ
φ
=
e
−
Ω
D
µ
φ
;
A
µ
=
A
µ
−
∂
µ
Ω
.
(9)The eﬀective Newtonian coupling
G
is deﬁned as
φ
−
2
=
G
(
φ
), it is spacetimedependent in general and has a Weyl weight equal to 2. Despite that one has
not
introduced any explicit dynamics to the
A
µ
ﬁeld (there are no
F
µν
F
µν
terms in the action (9)) one still has the
constraint
equation obtained from thevariation of the action w.r.t to the
A
µ
ﬁeld and which leads to the puregaugeconﬁgurations provided
φ
= 0
δS δA
µ
= 0
⇒
6 ( 2
A
µ
φ
2
−
∂
µ
(
φ
2
) ) +12( 2
A
µ
φ
2
−
∂
µ
(
φ
)
2
) =
−
(6 +12)
D
µ
φ
2
=
−
2 (6 +12)
φ D
µ
φ
= 0
⇒
A
µ
=
∂
µ
log
(
φ
)
.
(10)Hence, a variation of the action w.r.t the
A
µ
ﬁeld leads to the pure gauge solutions (10) which is tantamount to saying that the scalar
φ
is Weylcovariantly
constant D
µ
= 0 in any gauge
D
µ
φ
= 0
→
e
−
Ω
D
µ
φ
=
D
µ
φ
= 0 (for nonsingular gauge functions Ω
=
±∞
). Therefore, the scalar
φ
does not have truelocal dynamical degrees of freedom from the Weyl spacetime perspective. Sincethe gauge ﬁeld is a total derivative, under a local gauge transformation withgauge function Ω =
log φ
, one can gauge away (locally) the gauge ﬁeld andhave
A
µ
= 0 in the new gauge. Globally, however, this may not be the casebecause there may be
topological
obstructions. Therefore, the last constraintequation (10) in the gauge
A
µ
= 0, forces
∂
µ
φ
= 0
⇒
φ
=
φ
o
=
constant
.Consequently
G
=
φ
−
2
is also constrained to a constant
G
N
and one may set
G
N
φ
2
o
= 1, where
G
N
is the observed Newtonian constant today.The puregauge conﬁgurations leads to the Weyl integrability condition
F
µν
=
∂
µ
A
ν
−
∂
ν
A
µ
= 0 when
A
µ
=
∂
µ
Ω, and means physically that if we paralleltransport a vector under a closed loop, as we come back to the starting point,the
norm
of the vector has not changed; i.e, the rate at which a clock ticksdoes not change after being transported along a closed loop back to the initial3