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Dark Energy and Pioneer Anomaly from Weyl Geometry

Dark Energy and Pioneer Anomaly from Weyl Geometry

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Published by Kathryn Wilson
Physics Letters B 675 (2009) 226-230
Physics Letters B 675 (2009) 226-230

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Kathryn Wilson on Jan 26, 2009
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05/10/2014

 
The Cosmological Constant and PioneerAnomaly from Weyl Spacetimes andMach’s Principle
Carlos CastroCenter for Theoretical Studies of Physical SystemsClark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. 30314, castro@ctps.cau.eduJanuary 2009, Revised March 2009
Abstract
It is shown how Weyl’s geometry and Mach’s principle furnishes boththe
magnitude
and
sign
(towards the sun) of the Pioneer anomalous ac-celeration
a
c
2
/R
Hubble
firstly observed by Anderson et al. Weyl’sGeometry can account for
both
the
origins
and the
value
of the ob-served vacuum energy density (dark energy). The source of dark en-ergy is just the dilaton-like Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field that is re-quired to implement Weyl invariance of the most
simple
of all possibleactions. A
nonvanishing
value of the vacuum energy density of the orderof 10
123
4
Planck
is found consistent with observations. Weyl’s geometryaccounts also for the phantom scalar field in modern Cosmology in a verynatural fashion.
Keywords: Dark Energy, Weyl Geometry, Brans-Dicke-Jordan Gravity, PioneerAnomaly, Cosmology.The problem of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems facingCosmology today with a vast numerable proposals for its solution, we refer tothe recent monograph [1], [3] and references therein. In [4] we have shown howWeyl’s geometry (and its scaling symmetry) is instrumental to solve this darkenergy riddle. In this letter we will show how Weyl’s geometry in an elegantfashion can account for both the magnitude and sign of the Pioneer anomalousacceleration [5]. Before starting we must emphasize that our procedure [4] wasquite different than previous proposals [2] to explain dark matter ( instead of dark energy ) in terms of Brans-Dicke gravity. It is not only necessary to includethe Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field
φ
but it is essential to have a Weyl geometricextension and generalization of Riemannian geometry ( ordinary gravity ).Weyl’s geometry main feature is that the norm of vectors under paral-lel infinitesimal displacement going from
x
µ
to
x
µ
+
dx
µ
change as follows1
 
δ
||
|| ∼ ||
||
A
µ
dx
µ
where
A
µ
is the Weyl gauge field of scale calibrationsthat behaves as a connection under Weyl transformations :
A
µ
=
A
µ
∂ 
µ
Ω(
x
)
. g
µν
e
2Ω
g
µν
.
(1)involving the Weyl scaling parameter Ω(
x
µ
) . The Weyl covariant derivativeoperator acting on a tensor
T
is defined by
D
µ
T
= (
µ
+
ω
(
T
)
A
µ
)
T
;where
ω
(
T
) is the Weyl weight of the tensor
T
and the derivative operator
µ
=
∂ 
µ
+ Γ
µ
involves a connection Γ
µ
which is comprised of the ordinaryChristoffel symbols
{
ρµν
}
plus
the
A
µ
terms
Γ
ρµν 
=
{
ρµν 
}
+
δ
ρµ
A
ν 
+
δ
ρν 
A
µ
g
µν 
g
ρσ
A
σ
(2)
The Weyl gauge covariant operator
∂ 
µ
+ Γ
µ
+
w
(
T
)
A
µ
obeys the condition
D
µ
(
g
νρ
) =
µ
(
g
νρ
) + 2
A
µ
g
νρ
= 0
.
(3)where
µ
(
g
νρ
) =
2
A
µ
g
νρ
=
Q
µνρ
is the non-metricity tensor. Torsion canbe added [17] if one wishes but for the time being we refrained from doing so.The connection Γ
ρµν
is Weyl
invariant
so that the geodesic equation in Weylspacetimes is Weyl-covariant under Weyl gauge transformations (scalings)
ds
e
ds
;
dx
µ
ds
e
dx
µ
ds
;
d
2
x
µ
ds
2
e
2Ω
[
d
2
x
µ
ds
2
dx
µ
dsdx
ν
ds∂ 
ν
]
.g
µν
e
2Ω
g
µν
;
A
µ
A
µ
∂ 
µ
Ω;
A
µ
e
2Ω
(
A
µ
∂ 
µ
); Γ
ρµν
Γ
ρµν
.
(4)thus, the Weyl covariant geodesic equation transforms under Weyl scalings as
d
2
x
ρ
ds
2
+ Γ
ρµν
dx
µ
dsdx
ν
ds
A
µ
dx
µ
dsdx
ρ
ds
= 0
e
2Ω
[
d
2
x
ρ
ds
2
+ Γ
ρµν
dx
µ
dsdx
ν
ds
A
µ
dx
µ
dsdx
ρ
ds
] = 0
.
(5)The Weyl weight of the metric
g
νρ
is 2. The meaning of 
D
µ
(
g
νρ
) = 0 isthat the angle formed by two vectors remains the same under parallel transportdespite that their lengths may change. This also occurs in conformal mappingsof the complex plane. The Weyl covariant derivative acting on a scalar
φ
of Weyl weight
ω
(
φ
) =
1 is defined by
D
µ
φ
=
∂ 
µ
φ
+
ω
(
φ
)
A
µ
φ
=
∂ 
µ
φ
A
µ
φ.
(6)The Weyl scalar curvature in
D
dimensions and signature (
,
+
,
+
,
+
....
) is
1
R
Weyl
=
R
Riemann
(
D
1)(
D
2)
A
µ
A
µ
2(
D
1)
µ
A
µ
.
(7)
1
Some authors define their
A
µ
field with the opposite sign as
A
µ
which changes the signin the last term of the Weyl scalar curvature (7)
2
 
Having introduced the basics of Weyl geometry our starting action is the Weyl-invariant Jordan-Brans-Dicke-like action involving the scalar
φ
field and thescalar Weyl curvature
R
Weyl
[
g
µν
,A
µ
,φ
] =
[
g
µν
,A
µ
,φ
]
116
π
 
d
4
x
 
|
g
|
[
φ
2
R
Weyl
(
g
µν
,A
µ
)
12
g
µν
(
D
µ
φ
)(
D
ν
φ
)
(
φ
) ] =116
π
 
d
4
x
 
|
g
|
[ (
φ
)
2
R
Weyl
(
g
µν
,A
µ
)
12
g
µν
(
D
µ
φ
)(
D
ν
φ
)
(
φ
) ] (8)where under Wey scalings one has
φ
=
e
φ
;
g
µν
=
e
2Ω
g
µν
;
R
Weyl
=
e
2Ω
R
Weyl
;
(
φ
) =
e
4Ω
(
φ
)
 
|
g
|
=
e
4Ω
 
|
g
|
;
D
µ
φ
=
e
D
µ
φ
;
A
µ
=
A
µ
∂ 
µ
.
(9)The effective Newtonian coupling
G
is defined as
φ
2
=
G
(
φ
), it is spacetimedependent in general and has a Weyl weight equal to 2. Despite that one has
not
introduced any explicit dynamics to the
A
µ
field (there are no
µν
µν
terms in the action (9)) one still has the
constraint
equation obtained from thevariation of the action w.r.t to the
A
µ
field and which leads to the pure-gaugeconfigurations provided
φ
= 0
δS δA
µ
= 0
6 ( 2
A
µ
φ
2
∂ 
µ
(
φ
2
) ) +12( 2
A
µ
φ
2
∂ 
µ
(
φ
)
2
) =
(6 +12)
D
µ
φ
2
=
2 (6 +12)
φ D
µ
φ
= 0
A
µ
=
∂ 
µ
log
(
φ
)
.
(10)Hence, a variation of the action w.r.t the
A
µ
field leads to the pure gauge solu-tions (10) which is tantamount to saying that the scalar
φ
is Weyl-covariantly
constant D
µ
= 0 in any gauge
D
µ
φ
= 0
e
D
µ
φ
=
D
µ
φ
= 0 (for non-singular gauge functions Ω
=
±∞
). Therefore, the scalar
φ
does not have truelocal dynamical degrees of freedom from the Weyl spacetime perspective. Sincethe gauge field is a total derivative, under a local gauge transformation withgauge function Ω =
log φ
, one can gauge away (locally) the gauge field andhave
A
µ
= 0 in the new gauge. Globally, however, this may not be the casebecause there may be
topological
obstructions. Therefore, the last constraintequation (10) in the gauge
A
µ
= 0, forces
∂ 
µ
φ
= 0
φ
=
φ
o
=
constant
.Consequently
G
=
φ
−
2
is also constrained to a constant
G
and one may set
G
φ
2
o
= 1, where
G
is the observed Newtonian constant today.The pure-gauge configurations leads to the Weyl integrability condition
µν
=
∂ 
µ
A
ν
∂ 
ν
A
µ
= 0 when
A
µ
=
∂ 
µ
Ω, and means physically that if we paralleltransport a vector under a closed loop, as we come back to the starting point,the
norm
of the vector has not changed; i.e, the rate at which a clock ticksdoes not change after being transported along a closed loop back to the initial3

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