Leave Rights under the FMLA and the ADA: The Intersection of Two Laws Impacting Employee LeaveJuly 2001 1
Leave Rights under theFMLA and the ADA: TheIntersection of Two LawsImpacting Employee Leave
This brochure is one of a series on human resources practicesand workplace accommodations for persons with disabilitiesedited by Susanne M. Bruyère, Ph.D., CRC, SPHR, Director,Program on Employment and Disability, School of Industrialand Labor Relations – Extension Division, CornellUniversity. It was written by Sheila D. Duston, anattorney/mediator practicing in the Washington, D.C.metropolitan area, in September, 2001.Cornell University was funded in the early 1990’s by the U.S. Department of Education National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research as a National Materials Development Project on the employment provisions (Title I) of the ADA (Grant #H133D10155). These updates, and thedevelopment of new brochures, have been funded by Cornell’sProgram on Employment and Disability, the Pacific Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center, and other supporters.Cornell University currently serves as the Northeast Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center. Cornellis also conducting employment policy and practices research,examining private and federal sector employer responses todisability civil rights legislation. This research has been funded by the U.S. Department of Education National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (Grant #H133A70005) and the Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities.The full text of this brochure, and others in this series, can be found at: www.ilr.cornell.edu/ped/ada. Research reportsrelating to employment practices and policies on disabilitycivil rights legislation, are available at:www.ilr.cornell.edu/ped/ For further information, contact the Program on Employment and Disability, Cornell University, 102 ILR Extension, Ithaca, New York 14853-3901; 607/255-2906 (Voice), 607/255-2891(TDD), or 607/255-2763 (Fax). More information is also available from the ADA Technical Assistance Program and Regional Disability and BusinessTechnical Assistance Centers, (800) 949-4232 (voice/TTY),www.adata.org
The following discussion will provide a basic overviewof employee and employer rights involving leave underboth the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993(FMLA) and Title I of the Americans with DisabilitiesAct of 1990 (ADA). The discussion will then focus onthe areas where the two laws intersect, providing bothoverlapping and distinctive protections and obligations.
Overview of ADA Leave Protections
Title I of the ADA, which is enforced by the U.S. EqualEmployment Opportunity Commission (EEOC),protects qualified
individuals with disabilities fromdiscrimination on the basis of disability.
Under theADA, employers are required to provide necessaryreasonable accommodations unless doing so wouldimpose an undue hardship on the employer. A“reasonable accommodation” is a change in theworkplace that enables an employee to perform theessential functions of his/her job. Leave is one form of reasonable accommodation in that it enables anemployee to take time off from work, take care of whatever required the leave, and return to work and tothe performance of the job’s essential functions.In some cases, leave on a short term, long term, or evenhourly basis, will be the only effective accommodation.
In other situations, leave may be an effectiveaccommodation, but there may also be other effectiveaccommodations that will allow the person to stay onthe job. Under the ADA, the employer, preferably inconjunction with the individual requesting theaccommodation, makes the final decision of whateffective reasonable accommodation will be provided.
The EEOC’s ADA regulations are set forth at 29 C.F.R. Part1630.
A modification or adjustment satisfies the reasonableaccommodation obligation if it is "effective." Leave may be theonly effective accommodation where the employee needs timeoff to obtain medical treatment, recuperate from an illness or anepisodic manifestation of a disability, repair a wheelchair orother device, and so forth.