HANDOUT on NURSING MANAGEMENT FOR CLIENT RECEIVING BLOODTRANSFUSIONBy: John Arbie T. Tattao, RN
A. Erythrocytes carry antigens, which determine the different blood groups.B. Blood-typing systems are based on the many possible antigens, but the mostimportant are antigens of the ABO and Rh blood groups because they are mostlikely to be involved I transfusion reactions.
1. ABO typing
Antigens of system are labelled A and
Absence of both antigens results in type O blood
Presence of both antigens is type AB
Presence of either A or B results in type A and type B respectively
Nearly half the population is type O, the universal donor
Antibodies are automatically formed against the ABO antigens not onperson’s own RBC’S; transfusion with mismatched or incompatible bloodresults in a transfusion reaction2. Rh typing
Identifies presence or absence of Rh antigen (Rh positive or Rh negative).
Anti-Rh antibodies not automatically formed in Rh-negative person, but if Rh-positive blood is given, antibody formation starts and a second exposure toRh antigen will trigger a transfusion reaction.
Important for Rh-negative woman carrying Rh-positive baby; firstpregnancy not affected, but in a subsequent pregnancy with an Rh-positive positive baby, mother’s antibodies attack baby’s RBCs.Blood Transfusion and Component TherapyBLOOD TRANSFUSION –
the introduction of whole blood components of the blood(plasma, serum, erythrocytes, or platelets) into the venous circulation.
a.To increase the circulating blood volume as in shock due to haemorrhageb.To increase red cell volume of hemoglobin content of the blood as in anemiac.To increase WBC content of the blood as in agranulocytosis and leucopeniad.To increase the quantity of protein malnutrition, excessive loss of protein fromburns or vesicular skin diseases
A. Blood and blood products
1.Whole blood: provides all components
> 500 ml: 200 ml RBC and 300 ml Plasmaa. Large volume can cause difficulty: 12-24 hours for Hgb and hct to riseb. For massive blood loss and exchange transfusion in neonatesc. Complications: volume overload, transmission of hepatitis or AIDS,transfusion reaction, infusion of excess potassium and sodium, infusion of anticoagulant (citrate) used to keep stored blood from clotting.