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The Antiphons of the Oktoechos

The Antiphons of the Oktoechos

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07/05/2013

 
American Musicological Society
The Antiphons of the OktoechosAuthor(s): Oliver StrunkSource:
Journal of the American Musicological Society,
Vol. 13, No. 1/3, A MusicologicalOffering to Otto Kinkeldey upon the Occasion of His 80th Anniversary (1960), pp. 50-67Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological SocietyStable URL:
Accessed: 09/01/2009 07:47
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TheAntiphonsof theOktoechos
BYOLIVER STRUNK
IN
THEBYZANTINERITE,
at the
Sun-daymorningoffice,immediately
followingthe recitationof thePsalterandjustbefore theprokeimenonandmorningGospel,the twochoirsal-ternatensingingthe Anabathmoiofthemode,asetof threetofour littleantiphonsonthe GradualPsalms(atd)8al TivavapaOetiv).1nall,thereareeightsuchsets-one ineachof theeightmodes,onefor eachof
theeight Sundaysofthe modalcy-cle. Somesources,amongthem the
ViennaMSpublishednfacsimilebytheeditorsof theMonummentausicaebyzantinae,name asthecomposerofthesepiecesSt.JohnofDamascus.OthersourcespreferTheodoreStudites,2nd theirtestimonyiscon-firmedbyNicephorusCallistus,hemid-14th-centuryauthorofacom-mentaryontheAnabathmoi,whorecords thetradition thatTheodorewrotetheantiphonsnThessalonicaatthe time ofhis first exile.3 This
1Earlierstudies ofthe music of the Ana-bathmoi includeH.J.W.Tillyard's"TheAntiphonsof theByzantineOctoechus,"An-nualofthe BritishSchoolat AthensXXXVI
(I935/36), pp.132-I41,andP. LorenzoTar-
do's"L'ottoecho neimanoscrittimelurgici,"Bollettinodella BadiagrecadiGrottaferrataI-II(I947-I948), especiallyI, pp. 34andI33.Acompletetranscriptionispublishedin Till-yard's HymnsoftheOctoechus,PartI
(Copenhagen, I940),pp.I45-I83.
2Theearliest sourceinwhichIhave seenthe attribution toTheodore is Sinai778,aneleventh-centurytext of theParakletike. It isalso found inthese laterMSSwith musical
notation:Athos,Koutloumousi403and411;
Athos,LavraA.30;Jerusalem,GreekPatriar-chate, Holy Sepulchure533;Milan,Ambrosi-
anaA.139 sup. (gr.44);Sinai12I6andI471.
3P. N.Trempelas,'ExOoyhir-Lvtixfi
wouldplacetheircompositionsome-wherebetweentheyears794,orshortlythereafter,and797.InByzantineliturgicalusage,theword"antiphon"meansaselectionfrom thePsalter,ollowedbya dox-ology.Sucha selectionmayconsistof severalpsalms,notnecessarilyconsecutive,itmayconsistofonepsalmonly,itmayeven consistofsingleverses.Thepresenceof are-frainisnotessential,butwhen wefindoneitwillbecalledit6pApXla,
(p
vtoviO,
taxol,o rTQoXCdtov-
thename"antiphon"s nevergiventotherefrainitself,as itis intheWest.4At firstglance,Theodore'santiphonsappearoconstituteanex-ceptionto thisgeneralrule.Inmostlatermanuscriptsand inallprintededitions,eachantiphonof theAna-bathmoiconsists of threetroparia,andofthreetropariaonly-noversesfromthePsalterare indicated.But
6Q0o86oou
LtvoyQa4Cia
(Athens,
1949),pp.
te',ITl'.4IntheGreek translation oftheDialoguesofGregorytheGreat,usuallyattributed toZachariasofCalabria, Popefrom741to752,there is apassagethatthrowsarevealinglightonthisdifferencebetween the EasternandWesternmeaningsof the word"anti-phon."Chapter35of Book4tells thestoryofa monk ofSpoletowhoforetold thedayandhourof hisowndeath.When the timecame,he receivedHolyCommunion,andcallingthebrothers tohim,askedthem tojoinhim insong.Andhehimselfintonedtheantiphonforthem, saying:Aperitemihiportasjusti-tiae(Ps.
II7.
i9).Gregory'sown word-ingis:Quibustamenantiphonamipsepersemetipsumimposuit.ButZacharias trans-latesOltgdvTLpOvxvTOQoxtaQOovaI&TgjteQLiavuovbif3ake.-"Answeringthemantiphonally,hehimself intonedthetroparion."(PatrologialatinaLXXVII,375-378).
50
 
THEANTIPHONS OF THE OKTOECHOS
onturningtoearlierourcesonewillfind thatthegeneralruleapplies.Thewritten traditionfortheverses of the Anabathmoigoesbacktoouroldestcopiesofthemusicofthe Oktoechos-Lavra r.67(latetenthcentury)andVatopedi1488(about1050),twoAthosmanu-scripts usingthenotation oftheChartresfragment.5Itmaybefol-lowedinthe Coislincopiesof the late11thandearly12thcenturies,ofwhichtheGrottaferrataMS E.a.xi(dated"1113")sanoutstandingex-ample.6Fromthesesources welearnthat informertimeseachantiphonof the Anabathmoipossessedfourverses-two for thefirsttroparionand two forthesecond.Followinganorderlyandsymmetricalplan,theantiphonsofthe authenticmodesdrawtheir versesfromthefirsttwelveGradualPsalms;hoseoftheplagalmodesbeginagainfromPsalm119,usingthe samepsalmsandinprinciplethesameversesastheirauthenticparallels.7The wholescheme worksout as follows:
ProtosandPlagiosprotosDeuterosandPlagiosdeuterosTritosand"Lowmode"Tetartos andPlagiostetartos
5For anaccount oftheseMSS,with severalfacsimiles,seemy"Notation of the ChartresFragment,"AnnalesmusicologiquesIII(1955),PP.7-37.
6
Forafacsimile,see P.LorenzoTardo,L'anticamelurgiabizantina(Grottaferrata,1938), pl.xvii.Ihave also consulted two
otherCoislin sources-Sinai1214andI241.
7Eveninr.67,ourearliest sourceand theonlyone tocontain itsfullcomplementofverses,thereare severalcases ofdisagreementbetween theverses ofcorrespondingauthenticandplagalantiphons,andasone turnstolaterand laterMSS,thedisagreementsbecomemorenumerousand onebeginsto contend also withomissionsandambiguities.Thus,in ViennaTheol.gr.
I8I,
whichisdated"I223,"eachantiphonhasone verseonly,and one of theseverses isdrawninappropriatelyfromPsalm6(or37).Theinescapableconclusionisthatbythe time ourfirst MSS with musicalnotationwerewritten,the verses ofthetropariawerealreadybeginningtopassoutofuse.
Disturbinghetidybalanceof thisarrangement,thePlagiostetartosgoesontoadd a fourth and finalantiphon,withversesromPsalm132.Onlytooobviously,this liesoutsidethemainseries,and iftheGrottafer-ratacopydidnottell usthat thepiecehadaspecialfunction,wemighteasilyinferit.The rubricin E.a.xiis
'AvtKpcovov
VaIE6Osvov
etgpLvtPTV
dylov-"Anantiphonsungat thecommemorationofSaints."8Thus,whilethefirsttwenty-fourantiphonsare forordinaryuse,thetwenty-fifthandlastwas at onetime reservedorfeasts ofaparticularlass.9Howtheversesweretobeper-formedandwheretheywereto befittedin,oursourcesdonot tellus.No verse has musicalnotation,andonecannot bequitesurewhetherthesingle troparionis toprecedeitsversesorto followthem,forthephysicalarrangementofthesingleantiphonvariesfrom onecopytoanother. But itiseasytoshowthattheverseswere intended to besung,and ourbestandearliestourcesagree
Psalms119, 120,121Psalms122,123,124Psalms125, 126,127Psalms128, 129,130
inenteringeachpairofverses afterthetropariono whichitbelongsandinindicatinghepositionofthedox-ology bya conventionaldirection,placedafter thefinaltroparionofeachantiphon.The wholeconstruc-tionhasa closeparalleln theproperantiphonsthatdisplacetheregular
sInashortenedform,the rubric of theGrottaferrataMS is foundagaininSinai
1231.
9Psalm
132
has in the East aspecialas-sociation withcertain feasts of brotherorcompanionmartyrs-SergiusandBacchus,Marcianus andMartyrius,CosmasandDa-mian, CyrusandJohn.Forall four ofthesefeasts itsuppliestheAlleluiaverses,anditisalsoquotedorparaphrasedintwoof thefouroffices.
51

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