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The Khecarividya of Adinatha

The Khecarividya of Adinatha

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The Khecar¯ıvidy ¯ Adin¯aof ¯atha: ACritical Edition and Annotated Translation
 James MallinsonBalliol CollegeOxford August

,

 
The Khecar ¯ıvidy ¯ Adin¯aof ¯atha: A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation
submitted by James Mallinson of Balliol College, Oxfordfor the degree of Doctor of Philosophyin Trinity Term

This thesis contains a critical edition and annotated translation of the
Khecar ¯ ıvidya ¯ 
of ¯atha, an early hathayogic text which describes the physical practice of 
khecar ¯ 
 Adin¯
ı-
.
mudra ¯ 
.

 witnesses have been collated to establish the critical edition. The notes to thetranslation adduce parallels in other works and draw on Ballala’s¯
Brhatkhecar ¯ ıpraka ¯´ sa .
commentary and ethnographic data to explain the text.The
rst introductory chapter examines the relationships between the di
ff 
erentsources used to establish the critical edition. An analysis of the development of the textconcludes that its compiler(s) took a chapter describing the
vidya ¯ 
(mantra) of the deity Khecar¯ıfromlarger text to form the framework for the verses describing the physicalpractice. At this stage the text preserved the Kaula orientation of the original work and included verses in praise of 
madira ¯ 
, alcohol. By the time that the text achievedits greatest fame as an authority on the hathayogic practice of 
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
most of .its Kaula features had been expunged so as not to o
ff 
end orthodox practitioners of 
hathayoga 
and a short fourth chapter on magical herbs had been added.
.
The second introductory chapter concerns the physical practice. It starts by examining textual evidence in the Pali canon and Sanskrit works for practices similarto the hathayogic
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
before the time of composition of the
Khecar ¯ ıvidya ¯ 
.and then discusses the non-physical
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
s described in tantric works. Therefollows a discussion of how these di
ff 
erent features combined in the
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
of the
Khecar ¯ ıvidya ¯ 
. Then a survey of descriptions of 
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
in other hathayogic. works shows how the hathayogic corpus encompasses various di
ff 
erent approaches to.yogic practice. After an examination of the practice of 
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
in India today thechapter concludes by showing how the hathayogic
khecar ¯ ımudra ¯ 
has generally been the.preserve of unorthodox ascetics.In the third introductory chapter are described the

manuscripts used to establishthe critical edition, the citations and borrowings of the text in other works, and theethnographic sources.The appendices include a full collation of all the witnesses of the
Khecar ¯ ıvidya ¯ 
,critical editions of chapters from the
 Matsyendrasamhit ¯ haratn¯ ı
helpful in
and
Hat ava¯ 
understanding the
Khecar ¯ ıvidya ¯ 
,and a list of all the works cited in the
Brhatkhecar ¯ ı-. .. praka ¯´ sa 
.
 
 Acknowledgements
The enthusiasm of my teachers and fellow indologists in Oxford has been a constantsource of inspiration. Many have helped directly with this thesis but a few havebeen particularly generous with their time and learning. Firstly, I want to thank my supervisor Professor Sanderson who has always been ready to help me with hisencyclopaedic knowledge. Dr. Somdev Vasudeva is responsible for any elegance inthe presentation of the thesis and has provided me with a great deal of useful textualmaterial. Dr. Dominic Goodall encouraged me to go to India in search of manuscriptsand helped me with the south Indian witnesses. Others from Oxford that I want tothank by name for their comments and help are Dr. Harunaga Isaacson, Alex Watson,IsabelleOnians, Dr.JimBenson, ProfessorRichardGombrichandCsabaDezs˝o. Fromoutside of Oxford I thank Christian Bouy, whose work inspired me to start the thesisand who has helped in my search for sources, and Sebastian Pole who, with his practicalexpertise in yoga and his knowledge of 
¯ ayurveda 
, has both encouraged and aided mein my work.Thanks are due to the many people who have helped me obtain copies of manuscripts, in particular Simon Stocken, Dr. David White, Cassia Murray-Threipland,H.H. the Maharaja of Jodhpur, M. Ram, Dr. Dominic Wujastyk and the sta 
ff 
at thefollowing institutions: the Maharaja Man Singh Library, Jodhpur, the Indian Institute Library, Oxford, the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, the Scindia Oriental ResearchInstitute, Ujjain, the Sarvajanik Library, Nasik, the Prajn˜¯atha ´a, Wai, the Naap¯sal¯¯.tional Archives, Kathmandu, the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, theOriental Institute, Baroda, the Institut franc¸ais de Pondich´ery, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, the Bombay University Library, the Rajasthan OrientalResearch Institute, Jodhpur, and the Oriental Research Institute, Bikaner.For funding my studies and
eld trips I thank the British Academy for HumanitiesResearch, the Boden Fund, Eton College and the Spalding Trust.Finally, this thesis could not have been completed without the help of my family,Claudia Wright, and all the yogins in India who shared their knowledge and insights with me, in particular Sr´¯ı¯alak D¯am B¯as.

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