The strength of a component of a structure is dependent on the geometrical properties
its cross-section in addition to its material and other properties. For example, a beam with a large cross-section will, in general, be able to resist a bending moment more readily than a beam with a smallercross-section. Typical cross-section
structural members are shown in Figure 8.1.(a) Rectangle
‘Tee’ beam (e) Angie
Some typical cross-sections
cross-section of Figure 8.l(c) is also called a
it is used extensivelyin structural engineering. It is quite common to make cross-sections of metai structural membersinthe formofthe cross-sections ofFigure 8.l(c) to (e), as suchcross-sectionsare structurallymoreefficient
bending than cross-sections such as Figures 8.l(a) and (b). Wooden beams are usuallyof rectangular cross-section and not of the forms shown in Figures 8.l(c) to (e). This is becausewooden beams have grain and will have lines of weakness along their grain if constructed as inFigures 8.l(c) to (e).
The position of the centroid
a cross-section is the centre of the moment of area of the cross-section. If the cross-section is constructed from a homogeneous material, its centroid will lie at thesame position as its centre of gravity.