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Magnetic Domains

Magnetic Domains

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Published by Oisin Maguire

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Published by: Oisin Maguire on Nov 20, 2012
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Oisin Maguire Magnetic Domains1
Experiment
Title :- Magnetic Domains
Module No
:- PHYC40370
Student Name
:- Oisin Maguire
Student No
:- 09464778
 
Oisin Maguire Magnetic Domains2
Abstract
:-In this experiment a ferromagnetic material is analysed to obtain theCurie temperature
1407
Kelvin, coercive field
64
103.210967.1
Tesla,anisotropy field
64
103.210374.5
Tesla, variation of the magnetization withtemperature will be analysed and also the hysteresis loop will be plotted.
Theory
:- A ferromagnetic material is a material in which given a certaintemperature range there is a net magnetic moment which can line up in such away that the magnetic field persists after the removal of an external magneticfield. Below a certain temperature (it depends on the type of ferromagneticmaterial) called the Curie temperature an increasing external magnetic fieldwill causes an increase in magnetization in till the material is saturated(all itsdomains are aligned with the external magnetic field). On a macroscopic levelthere are small cells or domains in which a small volume of the ferromagneticmaterial acts like a clump of the scale around 0.1-1mm across in any direction.These domains have their magnetic fields aligned.Above the Curie temperature the ferromagnetic material acts like aparamagnetic material. A paramagnetic material is a material in which theatom and molecules can align with an external magnetic field.If an electromagnetic wave is passed through a ferromagnetic material while amagnetic field is present the orientation of the electromagnetic vectors willchange or rotate about the axis of travel. The larger the ferromagnetic materialis magnetised the larger this effect gets and as such we can measure thischange and compare it to the change in the magnetisation.The image on the left is before we apply an external field i.e. the magneticdomains in the ferromagnetic material are not aligned in any particulardirection however the image the right hand side is of the same ferromagnetic
 
Oisin Maguire Magnetic Domains3
material with an external magnetic field applied. There is clearly a correlationbetween the intensity of the light and the intensity of the magnetic field.
Experimental Procedure
:- A program was written to send out a voltage acrossa wire loop which causes a magnetic field through the ferromagnetic material.This will create magnetic domains within the ferromagnetic material which willat higher voltages cause the entire ferromagnetic material to change theorientation of the light that passes through the material.During the experiment a discharge lamp will be used to illuminate theferromagnetic material. Before the light from the discharge tube enters theferromagnetic material it is polarised also upon exiting the ferromagneticmaterial the light will be polarised again but this time it will be perpendicularlypolarised with respect to the initial polarisation. This light will be detected by aphotodiode which will send a dc(direct current) signal to a dc amplifier whichthen in turn will be converted to a binary voltage read in by the computerprogram. By plotting the applied magnetic field on an x-axis of a graph againstthe magnetisation on the y-axis a hysteresis loop will be the resultant graph.If we measure how the intensity of the light recorded by the photodiode as weraise the temperature of the ferromagnetic material we can determine theCurie temperature by extrapolating a linear plot. The ferromagnetic materialcan be heated by applying an external magnetic field perpendicular to thedirection of the incident light as well as being perpendicular to the direction of the other magnetic field provided by the computer program, in this way thestrength of the external magnetic field will not disturb in the change of thepolarisation as the external magnetic field will cause a change in an axis thatthe light getting recorded will not get disturbed by.
Experimental Data
:- Most of the data was taken by the computer programfound in the code section at the end of the lab report for the rest of the data amultimetre and a Gaussmeter was used.For the pictures a camera was used.

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