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The Convex Feasibility Problem in Image Recovery

The Convex Feasibility Problem in Image Recovery

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Published by Frabato El Mago

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Published by: Frabato El Mago on Nov 20, 2012
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The Convex Feasibility Problem in Image Recovery
P. L. Combette
Department of Electrical EngineeringCity College and Graduate SchoolCity University of New YorkNew York, NY 10031, USA
Contents
1 Introduction 6
1.1 The Image Recovery Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2 Optimal Solutions and Point Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Feasible Solutions and Set Theoretic Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.4 The Convex Feasibility Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 Mathematical Foundations 11
2.1 General Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.2 Geometrical Properties of Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.3 Strong and Weak Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.4 Convex Functionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.5 Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.5.1 Distance to a Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.5.2 Projection Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.5.3 Relaxed Convex Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
To appear in:
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 95, pp. 155-270. New York:Academic Press, 1996.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant MIP-9308609.
1
 
2.6 Nonlinear Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.7 Fej´er-Monotone Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.8 Convex Feasibility in a Product Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3 Overview of Convex Set Theoretic Image Recovery 21
3.1 Theoretical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.1.1 Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.1.2 The Image Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.1.3 Set Theoretic Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.2 Historical Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.2.1 Computerized Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.2.2 The Gerchberg-Papoulis Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.2.3 Ane Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.2.4 Arbitrary Convex Constraints - The POCS Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . 253.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.3.1 Restoration Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.3.2 Tomographic Reconstruction Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.3.3 Other Image Recovery Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.4 The Issue of Convexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.4.1 Convexication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.4.2 New Solution Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.4.3 Feasibility with Nonconvex Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4 Construction of Property Sets 31
4.1 Generalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.2 Sets Based on Intrinsic Properties of the Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.2.1 Spatial Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.2.2 Spectral Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
 
4.2.3 Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.3 Sets Based on Properties of the Imaging System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.3.2 Data Formation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.3.3 Set Construction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.3.4 Sets Based on Range Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364.3.5 Sets Based on Moment Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.3.6 Sets Based on Second Order Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.4 Information Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5 Solving the Convex Feasibility Problem 43
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.2 The Limitations of the POCS Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.2.1 Serial Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.2.2 Slow Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.2.3 Inconsistent Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.2.4 Countable Set Theoretic Formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.3 Inconsistent Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.3.1 Least-Squares Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.3.2 Alternating Projections in a Product Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.3.3 Simultaneous Projection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.4 Projection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.4.1 Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.4.2 Extrapolated Method of Parallel Projections (EMOPP) . . . . . . . . . . 565.4.3 Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575.4.4 Convergence Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595.5 Extrapolated Method of Parallel Approximate Projections (EMOPAP) . . . . . . 623

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