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Boiler HRSG
Boiler HRSG

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Published by: Sanchai Leaspisitthagoorn on Nov 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Scope and Definition of HRSG
Scope of HRSGs to be discussed.
 The Heat Recovery Steam Generator, or HRSG, comes in numerous shapes, designs, configurations,arrangements, etc. To simplify our discussion herein, we will first state that the type of HRSG we arereviewing is what may be referred to as a water tube(as opposed to a fire tube) type heat recovery unit.This refers to the process fluid, i.e., the steam or water being on the inside of the tube with the products of combustion being on the outside of the tube. The products of combustion are normally ator close to atmospheric pressure, therefore, the shell side is generally not considered to be a pressurevessel.
Definition of concepts and terminology used in discussions.
In the design of an HRSG, the first step normally is to perform a theoretical heat balance which will give us therelationship between the tube side and shell side process. Before we can compute this heat balance, we mustdecide the tube side components which will make up our HRSG unit. Even though these components mayinclude other heat exchange services, at this time we will only consider the three primary coil types that may be present, i.e., Evaporator, Superheater, Economizer. When we refer to an Evaporator Section, this includes allthe evaporator coils making up the total evaporator for a Pressure System. A pressure system includes all thecomponents included in the various streams associated with that pressure level.
Evaporator Section
The most important component would, of course, be the Evaporator Section, since without this coil(or coils),the unit would not be an HRSG. Throughout our discussion, we will refer to a main heat transfer component asa "section". When the section is broken into more than one segment, i.e., such as for a change in tube size,material, extended surface, location, etc., we will refer to the segments as coils. So an evaporator section mayconsist of one or more coils. In these coils, the effluent(water), passing through the tubes is heated to thesaturation point for the pressure it is flowing.
Superheater Section
The Superheater Section of the HRSG is used to dry the saturated vapor being separated in the steam drum. Insome units it may only be heated to little above the saturation point where in other units it may be superheatedto a significant temperature for additional energy storage. The Superheater Section is normally located in thehotter gas stream, in front of the evaporator.
Economizer Section
The Economizer Section, sometimes called a preheater or preheat coil, is used to preheat the feedwater beingintroduced to the system to replace the steam(vapor) being removed from the system via the superheater or steam outlet and the water loss through blowdown. It is normally located in the colder gas downstream of theevaporator. Since the evaporator inlet and outlet temperatures are both close to the saturation temperature for the system pressure, the amount of heat that may be removed from the flue gas is limited due to the approach tothe evaporator, known as the pinch which is discussed later, whereas the economizer inlet temperature is low,allowing the flue gas temperature to be taken lower 
 pes and Configurations of HRSG
The evaporator section type is very important since it generally defines the overall configuration of the HRSGunit. For this discussion, we will use the word "type" to refer to the general configuration of the evaporator.Even though there are many types, or configurations of HRSGs, we will define five general types for our discussion.
D-Frame evaporator layout.This configuration is very popular for HRSG units recovering heat from smallgas turbines and diesel engines. It is avery compact design and can beshipped totally assembled. It is limited,however, since the bent tubearrangement quickly causes the moduleto exceed shipping limitations for unitshaving a large gas flow.
 O-Frame evaporator layout.This configuration has probably been used for moreyears than any of the others. It has the advantage of theupper header being configured as the steam separationdrum. Or, the upper header can be connected to thesteam drum by risers, allowing more than one O-Frameevaporator to be connected to the same steam drum,resulting in shipable modules being able to handle verylarge gas flows.A-Frame evaporator layout.This configuration is simply a variation of the O-FrameEvaporator. It was popular for services with a largeamount of ash, since the center area between the lower drums could be configured as a hopper to collect andremove solid particles.

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