globalization; dearth of agricultural productivity, terrorism, drugs, HIV/AIDS, childlabor, child marriage, dowry deaths, migration, ethnic and nationalist, degradation of natural resources, and religious extremism are widespread. But, policies fail to meet thechallenges of social, political and economic ills and evils of the Indian society.These pathological phenomena which have deadened democracy, paralyzed development,impaired every socio-economic value inscribed in the Constitution and have humiliatedIndia before the world nations. With the degeneration in the functioning of theLegislatures, the Executive and the Judiciary, and with the struggling economy, there is afeeling of despondency among the citizenry leading to civic passivity and cynicism. Atthe moment, though, it is a lethargic state with tired metabolism, India’s progress hasn’tretarded; it’s GDP hasn’t affected much even by the current global recession.Democracy as of today in India – is not the failure of an idea; it is the failure of its protagonists. I agree with Rousseau's saying that “true democracy has never existed andnever will” and India witnesses the same. It’s waiting for the youth to struggle for anunfinished agenda; for redeeming the tryst with destiny that Nehru made; and for establishing a democracy with sovereign, socialist, secular vision and valor.
3. CITIZENSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
The concepts of democracy, citizenship, and governance have traversed since the daysfrom Aryan republics and Athenian Polis to liberal individualism and the new civicrepublicanism. The values of citizenship vary from country to country. However, “inmany countries, representative democracy has been heavily criticized for its inability to protect citizens”
.Besides, governance, an overarching concept with many institutionaldimensions and political manifestations, is conventionally understood as the way the stateand its various institutions negotiate and mediate with people, markets and civil society,through laws, policies, regulation and finance. But the notion of governance underwentmetamorphosis to exceed the conventional arena of the nation-state or government and isnow increasingly influenced by market forces, civil-society processes and citizen-oriented endeavors.
What is good citizenship for me?
The Oxford Dictionary of Sociology
explains citizenship: “In political and legal theory,citizenship refers to the rights and duties of the member of a nation-state or city. In somehistorical contexts, a citizen was any member of a city; that is, an urban collectivitywhich was relatively immune from the demands of a monarch of state…It is argued byhistorians that citizenship has thus expanded with democratization to include a wider definition of the citizen regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. The concept was revived inthe context of the modern state, notably during the French and American Revolutions,and gradually identified more with rights than obligations. In modern times citizenship
Pimbert, Michel and Tom Wakeford, “Overview—Deliberative Democracy and Citizen Empowerment” in PLA Notes (Notes on Participatory Learning and Action), International Institute for Environment and Development,February 2001.
2005 Edition; Edited by John Scott and Gordon Marshall.