The Role of Biodetritus in Accumulationof Elements in Aquatic Ecosystems
S. A. Ostroumov
and G. M. Kolesov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Biology, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119234 Russia E-mail: email@example.com
V. I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Kosygina, 19, Moscow, 119991 Russia
—Biodetritus that formed over a 7-month period in microcosms with
contained a number of elements. This is the first study to determineconcentrations of some elements in biodetritus. Neutron activation analysis showed that the elements’concentrationsdecreaseinthefollowingorder:Ca>Zn>Ba>Br>Ce>Se>Nd>La>U>Hf>Sb>Th>Sm> S > Cs > Au. The data obtained contribute to understanding of the polyfunctional role of aquatic organisms inaquatic ecosystems.
detritus, mollusks, water quality; rare and scattered elements,
Functioning of aquatic ecosystems involves migra-tion of some elements [1, 2] through water column,transfer of elements on the water–sediment interface,and biogeochemical flows of elements [1–13]. Studiesof biogenic migration of elementsare an important areaofbiosphericresearch[1–13].Biogenicmigrationofel-ements in freshwater and seawater ecosystems is an as- pect of water self-purification and determines water quality[14–16].Itshouldbeemphasizedthattheroleof aquatic organisms in element migration is complex, in-volves both uptake and discharge of substances, andaffects many other processes in an ecosystem [3–16].To analyze how organisms contribute to biogenicmigration of elements in an aquatic ecosystem we needdata both on accumulation of elements by aquatic or-ganisms and concentrations of those elements in bio-detritus [15, 16] that precipitates and adds to sedimen-tation.In the previous works  and , we determinedconcentrations of some elements in mollusk detritus.However, these studies concerned only few elementsand did not include data on U, Au, Ce, Se, La, Sb, Hf,Th, Sc, Sm, and Cs.In the literature we have not found data on the con-centrations of the elements in detritus produced in mi-crocosms after incubation of the common aquaticspecies:
L.The study objective is to analyze biodetritus in mi-crocosms where the three freshwater species are incu- bated. Element concentrations in the detritus aredetermined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Theresults contribute to understanding of the role of bio-sediments in distribution of elementsin aquatic ecosys-tems.MATERIAL AND METHODSExperiments were conducted on freshwater micro-cosms composed of three common freshwater species:
Cerato- phyllum demersum
L. maintained in settled tapwater.
plants had been collected in a pond intheMoskvaRiverfloodplain withinMoscowCity.
mollusks had been collected in the up- per reaches of the Moskva River, upstream of Zveni-gorod town, Moscow oblast. Quantitative characteris-tics of the microcosms are summarized in Table 1.After the microcosms were made, they were incu- batedataroomtemperaturefor7.5months(lateAugustthrough mid April) and aerated with aquarium aerators.By the end of the incubation, the mollusks died produc-ing biodetritus that was filtered, dried, powdered, andstudied by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The useof NAA in geochemistry was discussed in Kolesov. It had been used to determine element content inmollusk tissues in the study by Ostroumov et al. that confirmed its efficacy in application to biologicmaterial.
ISSN 1995-4255, Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2010, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 369–373. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.Original Russian Text © S.A. Ostroumov, G.M. Kolesov, 2010, published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2010, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 525–531.
Microcosm compositionsSpeciesMicrocosm No. 1 No. 2
39 ind. 15 ind.
12 ind. 32 ind.
L.(Wet weight)2.4 g 2.4 gSettled tapwater 3 l 3 l