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2010.Full Text of Paper.The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. S.A.Ostroumov, G.M.Kolesov.p.369-373. http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/

2010.Full Text of Paper.The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. S.A.Ostroumov, G.M.Kolesov.p.369-373. http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/

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Published by Sergei Ostroumov

http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/

This paper is the first publication that reported the concentrations of a number of rare earth elements in biodetritus. The rare earth elements are a key component of modern hi-technology products and they are a new component in the modern solid wastes and waste waters. This paper is an innovative and significant contribution to the database for modern environmental monitoring. ** Biodetritus that formed over a 7-month period in microcosms with Viviparus viviparus, Unio pictorum , and Ceratophyllum demersum contained a number of elements. This is the first study to determine concentrations of some elements in biodetritus. Neutron activation analysis showed that the elements’ concentrations decrease in the following order: Ca > Zn > Ba > Br > Ce > Se > Nd > La > U > Hf > Sb > Th > Sm > S > Cs > Au. The data obtained contribute to understanding of the polyfunctional role of aquatic organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Key words: Zn, viviparus, unio, U, Th, Sm, Se, Sb, rare, pictorum, Nd, La, Hf, elements, ecosystems, earth, detritus, demersum, Cs, ceratophyllum, Ce, Ca, Br, Ba, Au, aquatic, biogeochemistry, Title: The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems Author(s): Ostroumov S. A.; Kolesov G. M. Source: CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, Volume: 3, Issue: 4, Pages: 369-373, DOI: 10.1134/S1995425510040016, Published: AUG 2010; full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75098592/ The reference in a traditional form: Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. - CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, 3 (4): 369-373.

http://ru.scribd.com/doc/114001532/

This paper is the first publication that reported the concentrations of a number of rare earth elements in biodetritus. The rare earth elements are a key component of modern hi-technology products and they are a new component in the modern solid wastes and waste waters. This paper is an innovative and significant contribution to the database for modern environmental monitoring. ** Biodetritus that formed over a 7-month period in microcosms with Viviparus viviparus, Unio pictorum , and Ceratophyllum demersum contained a number of elements. This is the first study to determine concentrations of some elements in biodetritus. Neutron activation analysis showed that the elements’ concentrations decrease in the following order: Ca > Zn > Ba > Br > Ce > Se > Nd > La > U > Hf > Sb > Th > Sm > S > Cs > Au. The data obtained contribute to understanding of the polyfunctional role of aquatic organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Key words: Zn, viviparus, unio, U, Th, Sm, Se, Sb, rare, pictorum, Nd, La, Hf, elements, ecosystems, earth, detritus, demersum, Cs, ceratophyllum, Ce, Ca, Br, Ba, Au, aquatic, biogeochemistry, Title: The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems Author(s): Ostroumov S. A.; Kolesov G. M. Source: CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, Volume: 3, Issue: 4, Pages: 369-373, DOI: 10.1134/S1995425510040016, Published: AUG 2010; full text free: http://www.scribd.com/doc/75098592/ The reference in a traditional form: Ostroumov S. A., Kolesov G. M. The role of biodetritus in accumulation of elements in aquatic ecosystems. - CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY, 3 (4): 369-373.

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The Role of Biodetritus in Accumulationof Elements in Aquatic Ecosystems
S. A. Ostroumov
a
and G. M. Kolesov
b
a
 Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Biology, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119234 Russia E-mail: ar55@yandex.ru
b
V. I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Kosygina, 19, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Abstract
 —Biodetritus that formed over a 7-month period in microcosms with
Viviparus viviparus
,
Unio pictorum
, and
Ceratophyllum demersum
contained a number of elements. This is the first study to determineconcentrations of some elements in biodetritus. Neutron activation analysis showed that the elementsconcentrationsdecreaseinthefollowingorder:Ca>Zn>Ba>Br>Ce>Se>Nd>La>U>Hf>Sb>Th>Sm> S > Cs > Au. The data obtained contribute to understanding of the polyfunctional role of aquatic organisms inaquatic ecosystems.
DOI:
10.1134/S1995425510040016
 Key words:
detritus, mollusks, water quality; rare and scattered elements,
Viviparus
,
Unio
,
Ceratophyllum
Functioning of aquatic ecosystems involves migra-tion of some elements [1, 2] through water column,transfer of elements on the water–sediment interface,and biogeochemical flows of elements [1–13]. Studiesof biogenic migration of elementsare an important areaofbiosphericresearch[1–13].Biogenicmigrationofel-ements in freshwater and seawater ecosystems is an as- pect of water self-purification and determines water quality[14–16].Itshouldbeemphasizedthattheroleof aquatic organisms in element migration is complex, in-volves both uptake and discharge of substances, andaffects many other processes in an ecosystem [3–16].To analyze how organisms contribute to biogenicmigration of elements in an aquatic ecosystem we needdata both on accumulation of elements by aquatic or-ganisms and concentrations of those elements in bio-detritus [15, 16] that precipitates and adds to sedimen-tation.In the previous works [15] and [16], we determinedconcentrations of some elements in mollusk detritus.However, these studies concerned only few elementsand did not include data on U, Au, Ce, Se, La, Sb, Hf,Th, Sc, Sm, and Cs.In the literature we have not found data on the con-centrations of the elements in detritus produced in mi-crocosms after incubation of the common aquaticspecies:
Viviparus viviparus
L.,
Unio pictorum
L., and
Ceratophyllum demersum
L.The study objective is to analyze biodetritus in mi-crocosms where the three freshwater species are incu- bated. Element concentrations in the detritus aredetermined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Theresults contribute to understanding of the role of bio-sediments in distribution of elementsin aquatic ecosys-tems.MATERIAL AND METHODSExperiments were conducted on freshwater micro-cosms composed of three common freshwater species:
Viviparus viviparus
L.,
Unio pictorum
L., and
Cerato- phyllum demersum
L. maintained in settled tapwater.
Ceratophyllum
plants had been collected in a pond intheMoskvaRiverfloodplain withinMoscowCity.
Vivi- parus
and
Unio
mollusks had been collected in the up- per reaches of the Moskva River, upstream of Zveni-gorod town, Moscow oblast. Quantitative characteris-tics of the microcosms are summarized in Table 1.After the microcosms were made, they were incu- batedataroomtemperaturefor7.5months(lateAugustthrough mid April) and aerated with aquarium aerators.By the end of the incubation, the mollusks died produc-ing biodetritus that was filtered, dried, powdered, andstudied by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The useof NAA in geochemistry was discussed in Kolesov[17]. It had been used to determine element content inmollusk tissues in the study by Ostroumov et al. [18]that confirmed its efficacy in application to biologicmaterial.
 ISSN 1995-4255, Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2010, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 369–373. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.Original Russian Text © S.A. Ostroumov, G.M. Kolesov, 2010, published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2010, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 525–531.
369
Table 1.
Microcosm compositionsSpeciesMicrocosm No. 1 No. 2
Viviparus viviparus
39 ind. 15 ind.
Unio pictorum
12 ind. 32 ind.
Ceratophyllum demersum
L.(Wet weight)2.4 g 2.4 gSettled tapwater 3 l 3 l
 
Samples were pretreated as follows. Detritus wasdried at 105°C. Fifteen to twenty-five milligram sam- ples, reference samples (KH, ST-1, SGD-1, FFA,RUS-1, Allende, BCR, etc.), and standards were pack-aged in aluminum bags.Thesampleswereplacedinanaluminumboxandir-radiated for 15 to 20 h in the thermal channel of the nu-clear reactor at Moscow Engineering-Physical Insti-tute. Then they were cooled, the aluminum bags wereremoved, and the samples were put in clean vials to re-duce background interference caused by the package.Radiation was measured after 5–7 and 15–30 days withORTEC high-resolution semiconductor germanium de-tector and NUC-8192 4096 channel pulse analyzer (EMG, Hungary). Spectra and element concentrationswere determined in an automatic mode using softwaredeveloped in Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry andAnalytical Chemistry. Concentrations of some ele-mentswereextrapolated, whichisacommonandtested practice.Thecompositionofthesettledtapwater,usedforthemicrocosms, was determined by inductively coupled plasmaatomicemissionspectroscopy (ICP-AES)usingICAP-9000 spectrometer (Thermo Jarrell Ash, USA).The results are given in Table 2.Water quality obviously meets requirements speci-fied in Russian hygienic regulations, which is of highimportance for long-term incubation experiments.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe results of the neutron activation analysis aregiveninTable3.Concentrationsofsomeelements,e.g.,Se, U, Th, Hf, and Au, showed considerable variationscomplicating the calculations of averages.Calcium content was 15.2 to 15.4%, averaging15.3%. Average concentrations of elements in detritus
CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY Vol. 3 No. 4 2010
370 OSTROUMOV, KOLESOV
Table 2.
Elemental composition of the tapwater used for the microcosms compared to Maximum Allowable Con-centrations (MAC) specified in Hygienic Standard GN 2.15.689-98, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation,Moscow, 1998ElementConcentration MACmg/lAl 0.06 0.5B 0.01 0.5Ba 0.03 0.1Ca 49.4 – Cd <0.001 0.001Co <0.001 0.1Cr <0.01 0.05Cu <0.001 1Fe 0.007 0.3K 2.3 – Li <0.01 0.03Mg 12.6 – Mn 0.016 0.1Mo <0.01 0.25 Na 10.7 –  Ni <0.002 0.1Pb <0.005 0.03Si 5.1 10Sr 0.14 7Ti <0.001 0.1Zn <0.001 1
Table 3.
Element content in dry weight biodetritus in themicrocosms according to NAA, ppmElementMicrocosmAverage1 2La 3.69 8.96 6.325Ce 8.52 16.2 12.36Pr* 1.1 1.71 1.405 Nd 4.9 8.18 6.54Sm 1.32 1.41 1.365Eu 0.2 0.48 0.34Gd* 1.72 1.74 1.73Tb 0.25 0.25 0.25Dy* 1.45 1.47 1.46Ho* 0.31 0.32 0.315Er* 0.81 0.82 0.815Tm* 0.12 0.12 0.12Yb 0.61 0.62 0.615Lu 0.095 0.097 0.096Cs 0.26 1.82 1.04**Ba 1530 1250 1390Sc 0.92 1.69 1305Zn 1680 1310 1495Se 13.8 4.36 9.08**Sb 2.33 1.44 1.885Th 0.33 3.16 1.745**U 4.61 2.1 3.355Br 76 75 75.5Hf 0.68 3.34 2.01**Au 0.27 0.025 0.1475**
 Note: An asterisk indicates extrapolated values (data from elementdistribution curve in content: ionic radius/atomic number for rare-earth metals coordinates). A double asterisk indicates considerablevariation of element concentrations. Further research should yieldmore accurate data.
 
are arranged in decreasing order as follows: Ca > Zn >Ba>Br>Ce>Se>Nd>La>U>Hf>Sb>Th>Sm>Cs > Au.The biodetritus studied is different in its origin fromtotalsedimentthataccumulatesinwaterbodiesandwa-ter courses, the latter including both biodetritus andother components, e.g., mineral suspension. It is possi- ble that the element composition of the detritus differsfrom that of total sediment analyzed by other authorsfor the same reason.Thus antimony content is higher in the biodetritusthan in total sediment [9] amounting to 0.05 to0.11 ppm dry weight sediment.Zinc content is also higher in the biodetritus than inthe total sediment of the Gomti River, a Ganges’tribu-tary,India,amountingto15.72to99.35ppmdryweightsediment [10]. Relatively high zinc content in the bio-detritus may be explained by the detritus’ having beenformed by dead organisms that had accumulated the el-ement essential for many enzymes. Note that flows of biosediment formed by aquaticorganisms are considerable. Ostroumov [19] estimatedthat in some aquatic ecosystems mollusk carbon flowswere as high as 11.9 kg/m
2
a year. Total element flowwith bivalves’ detritus was 1711 tons of carbon and235 tons of nitrogen a year for a 60 km
2
aquatic ecosys-tem.Fromthedataobtained weestimatedthepotentialof detritus in accumulating immobilized elements for ar-eas that accumulated 1 or 1000 kg dry weight of detri-tus, respectively (Table 4). It should be underlined thatthe estimations are only for reference and concern onlythe potential of detritus to accumulate some elements.The experimental data should not be extended tonatural ecosystems.Adistinctive featureoftheexperimentisthatthede-tritus formed from known common organisms (twomollusk and one macrophyte species) over a specific period of time. The element concentrations in the detri-tus provide data on possible background element con-tent. Further studies of element contents of the detritusare required as its background element content in pol-luted natural ecosystems may be contaminated becauseof anthropogenic pollution.Our preliminary tests showed that contamination of water with heavy metals, such as Cr, Co, Zn, Cu, andCd, elevated their concentrations in biodetritus com- paredtocontrolsamples.Inordertoobtainreliableesti-mates and correctly interpret the data on concentrationof metals in detritus in a polluted aquatic ecosystem,dataonbackground elementcompositionofdetritusarerequired. In this study we obtained the data for detritusformed by 3 common species of aquatic organisms.Data on element composition of aquatic plants andtheir detritus have been reported in the literature, butthere are no data on composition in mollusk detritus or towhichmolluskscontributed.Itappearsthattheprevi-ous publications by Ostroumov (Table 5) are the onlyworks to have explored into the subject.CONCLUSIONSThus, this is the first study to determine some ele-ments in biodetritus that formed in a controlled experi-ment incubating three common aquatic species (
Vivi- parus viviparus
,
Unio pictorum
, and
Ceratophyllumdemersum
). The results contribute to understanding therole of the organisms in biogenic migration of the ele-ments. The data obtained help more thoroughly esti-mate the role of biodetritus of specific organisms as aconcentrator of elements in an aquatic ecosystem.A major factor affecting detritus formation by fil-ter-feeders is the rate of filtration determined by the presence and concentration of surfactants, detergents,and other chemicals [20, 21]. In the previous works byOstroumov, it was shown that detritus production can be affected by pollutants [20–22]. Further studiesshould reveal new relations between water pollutionand detritus as an important component of aquatic eco-systems—water bodies and watercourses.Vernadsky wrote: “…it is hard to overestimate thesignificance of living organisms… They are agents of intensive migration of atoms in the biosphere…” [2],“Life is a living matter…biogenic migration of atomscausedbylifeisthemostimportantorganizationalformin the biosphere” [2]. The data obtained support theseviewsofVernadsky,addtoourknowledgeoftheroleof  biota in biogeochemical processes, elucidate how ele-ment composition of biosediment in aquatic ecosys-tems forms, and reveal interconnections betweengeochemicalandhydrobiological processesinbiogenicmigration of elements [3–13, 23–37].
CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY Vol. 3 No. 4 2010
THE ROLE OF BIODETRITUS IN ACCUMULATION OF ELEMENTS 371
Table 4.
Rough estimates of biosediment element contentaccording to NAAElementPer 1000 gdetritusPer 1000 kgdetritusCa 153 g 153 kgBa 1.39 g 1.39 kgCe 12.4 mg 12.4 gSe 9.08 mg 9.1 gLa 6.33 mg 6.3 gU 3.50 mg 3.5 gSb 2.00 mg 2 gHf 2.00 mg 2 gTh 1.70 mg 1.7 gSc 1.40 mg 1.4 gSm 1.36 mg 1.4 gCs 1.04 mg 1.04 gAu 0.148 mg 0.1 g

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