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TCP-IP & Static Routing

TCP-IP & Static Routing

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Published by: abhineet sharma on Nov 22, 2012
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Routing Concepts and Distance Vector Protocols(Source:Network Professional's Advaned Internetworking Guide, John WileyPublications)
The routing process gives a router its abilities, from the most basic (a broadcast domain boundary)all the way through its most advanced routing protocol interaction (a gateway to the Internet and theworld). Of course, there are rules to be followed and information that routers must have to makethis happen.Important are the ways to filter and control the propagation of routing information between routersand routing domains.
Routing Fundamentals
Basic Routing:
Routers just need to know which networks they are to reach to. If there is no entry forthe network a packet is destined to, the packet is simply dropped.
So, here is a matter of maintaining and updating the routing table too.
Directly connected networks:
a router always knows about the directly connectednetworks as long as they are up and enabled; they show up in the routing table as directlyconnected.
Understanding TCP/IP
architectural model
is for reference. The layers in it correspond to a function iscommunication of data; any number of protocols might be doing it as the communicationfunction might be serviced by specific protocols.
Every protocol communicates with its
 peer—the implementation of same protocol on aremote computer.
Theoretically the layers/protocols tend to be independent, but dependency exists as theupper layers rely on lowers and hence there has to be an agreement on the way datatransmission is going to occur.
At the remote end, the data is passed up the stack to the receiving application. Theindividual layers do not need to know how the l ayers above or below them function; theyonly need to know how to pass data to them.
Each layer adds control information in form of headers/trailers to ensure proper delivery ofdata to the peer. When a protocol uses headers or trailers to package the data from anotherprotocol, the process is called
address mechanism
is the common element that allows data to be routed through thevarious layers until it reaches its destination.
Data Structures of Layers:
Each layer also has its own independent data structures.
, a layer is unaware of the data structures used by the layers above and belowit.
In reality
, the data structures of a layer are designed to be compatible with the structuresused by the surrounding layers for the sake of more efficient data transmission. Still, eachlayer has its own data structures and its own terminology to describe those structures.
Network Access Layer(DoD):
the network access layer protocols must understand thedetails of the underlying physical network, such as the packet structure, maximum framesize, and the physical address scheme that is used--ensures that these protocols can formatthe data correctly so that it can be transmitted across the network.
Routing—gateway vs Router:
Two types of devices are responsible for routing messagesbetween networks. The
device is called a
a computer that has two networkadapter cards. This computer accepts network packets from one network on one networkcard and routes those packets to a different network via the second network adapter card.The
device is a
, which is a dedicated hardware device that passes packets
from one network to a different network.
Datagram Service:
does not support any concept of a session or connection. Once a message is sent orreceived, the service retains no memory of the entity with which it was communicating.
If such a memory is needed, the protocols in the host-to-host transport layer maintain it.The abilities to retransmit data and check it for errors are minimal or nonexistent in thedatagram services.
If the receiving datagram service detects a transmission error during transmission usingthe checksum value of the datagram, it simply ignores (or drops) the datagram withoutnotifying the receiving higher-layer entity.
Host-to-host Transport Layer:
In addition to the usual transmit and receive functions, the layer uses
commands to initiate and terminate the connection.
This layer accepts information to be transmitted as a stream of characters, and it returnsinformation to the recipient as a stream.
The service employs the
concept of a connection (or virtual circuit)
. A
connection isthe state of the host-to-host transport layer
between the time that an open command isaccepted by the receiving computer and the time that the close command is issued byeither computer.
Sessions and Ports:
The application layer manages the
(connections) betweencooperating applications.
In the TCP/IP protocol hierarchy, sessions are not identifiable as a separate layer, andthese functions are performed by the host-to-host transport layer.
 Instead of using the term “session,” TCP/IP uses the terms
“socket” and “port”
todescribe the path (or virtual circuit)
over which cooperating applications communicate.
The application layer is responsible for
standardizing the presentation of data
NDIS drivers in the Windows NT environment, the programs(modules) which are identifiedwith the name of physical interface do the task of encapsulation and sending frames to thelink. Related programs do the rest, e.g. address mapping and all.
All TCP/IP data flows through IP when it is sent and received, regardless of its finaldestination.
IP—packet switched connection-less protocol:
A packet switching network uses the addressing information in the packets to switchpackets from one physical network to another, moving them toward their finaldestination. Each packet travels the network independently of any other packet.
are devices that switch packets between the different physicalnetworks.
Deciding which gateway to use is called routing
IP makes the routing decision for each individual packet
Each host-to-host transport layer protocol has a unique protocol number that identifies itto IP.
In traditional TCP/IP jargon, there are only two types of network devices: 1. Gatewaysand 2. Hosts.
Gateways forward packets between networks and hosts don't.
multi-homed host(
a host is connected to more than one network), it can forwardpackets between the networks. When a multi-homed host forwards packets, it acts likeany other gateway and is considered to be a gateway.
Each network has a
 Maximum Transfer Unit(MTU)
which is the largest packet size it cantransmit. When packet size has to be more than its limit(eg the case when two networks ofdifferent MTU sizes interface), there has to be fragmentation.
Internet Control Message
This is connection-less(Datagram delivery
service of IP) and yet tries to ensure the robustness of link for connection-less-ness(Well, soto speak). Each specific protocol has a definite set of questions which are often answered ina specific way.. The development of protocols in computing has been exactly according towhat one needs to know. ICMP implements:
Flow Control:
by sending back a
source quench message
which(an intermediategateway too might send) is obviously interpretted only by ICMP running host when themachine senses too much packets being received and buffer about to run out.
Destination Unreachable:
When a destination is unreachable, the computer detectingthe problem sends a destination unreachable message to the datagram’s source. If theunreachable destination is a network or host, the message is sent by an intermediategateway. But if the destination is an unreachable port, the destination host sends themessage.
Route Redirect:
The complication is that a Redirect message must be tied to aparticular, existing connection; it cannot be used to make an unsolicited change to thehost’s routing tables. Furthermore, Redirects are only applicable within a limitedtopology; they may be sent only from the first gateway along the path to the originatinghost. A later gateway may not advise that host, nor may it use ICMP Redirect to controlother gateways.
deliver data between the application layer and the internetwork layer.Applications programmers can choose the service that is most appropriate for their specificapplications.
UDP is an unreliable, connectionless datagram protocol. “Unreliable” merely means that theprotocol has no technique for verifying that the data reached the other end of the networkcorrectly. Within your computer, UDP will deliver data correctly.
TCP is a
reliable, connection-oriented, byte-stream protocol.
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Supports the low-overhead transport of filesconsisting of a mixture of text and graphics.
It uses a stateless, connection- and object-oriented protocol with simple commands thatsupport selection and transport of objects between the client and the server.
This is about how router decides where to route data and ways to gather the informationrequired in order to accomplish this very motive.
Routers care only about networks when they are routing, not about individual host IPaddresses.
Every router must know about every destination network to which it cansend data.
If a router has a packet to route but the destination network is not in its routingtable, then
the packet will be
dropped(Scenario I).
The information that a router needs to route are:
Destination address
Possible routes to all remote networks
The best route or path to a destination network 
Neighbor routers from which it can learn routes and send data
A way to learn, update, and maintain route information
All the interfaces of the router show up in the routing table themselves if up/enabled/activeand have
directly connected
written with them.
Scenario of PC in one Broadcast domain on a Router pinging a machine in Another:
PC1 creates an Internet control message protocol (ICMP) packet, frames it at the datalink layer, and then sends the frames across the network to the router. At the data linklayer, the destination address is the router because it is default gateway for BrusPC1 andthe packet is destined for a remote network.
Once the frame reaches the router, the router tears off the frame and looks into the IPpacket header. It needs the destination IP address for the route lookup. The router findsthat the destination network is Looking at the routing table of BrusRtr1

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