from one network to a different network.
does not support any concept of a session or connection. Once a message is sent orreceived, the service retains no memory of the entity with which it was communicating.
If such a memory is needed, the protocols in the host-to-host transport layer maintain it.The abilities to retransmit data and check it for errors are minimal or nonexistent in thedatagram services.
If the receiving datagram service detects a transmission error during transmission usingthe checksum value of the datagram, it simply ignores (or drops) the datagram withoutnotifying the receiving higher-layer entity.
Host-to-host Transport Layer:
In addition to the usual transmit and receive functions, the layer uses
commands to initiate and terminate the connection.
This layer accepts information to be transmitted as a stream of characters, and it returnsinformation to the recipient as a stream.
The service employs the
concept of a connection (or virtual circuit)
connection isthe state of the host-to-host transport layer
between the time that an open command isaccepted by the receiving computer and the time that the close command is issued byeither computer.
Sessions and Ports:
The application layer manages the
(connections) betweencooperating applications.
In the TCP/IP protocol hierarchy, sessions are not identifiable as a separate layer, andthese functions are performed by the host-to-host transport layer.
Instead of using the term “session,” TCP/IP uses the terms
“socket” and “port”
todescribe the path (or virtual circuit)
over which cooperating applications communicate.
The application layer is responsible for
standardizing the presentation of data
NDIS drivers in the Windows NT environment, the programs(modules) which are identifiedwith the name of physical interface do the task of encapsulation and sending frames to thelink. Related programs do the rest, e.g. address mapping and all.
All TCP/IP data flows through IP when it is sent and received, regardless of its finaldestination.
IP—packet switched connection-less protocol:
A packet switching network uses the addressing information in the packets to switchpackets from one physical network to another, moving them toward their finaldestination. Each packet travels the network independently of any other packet.
are devices that switch packets between the different physicalnetworks.
Deciding which gateway to use is called routing
IP makes the routing decision for each individual packet
Each host-to-host transport layer protocol has a unique protocol number that identifies itto IP.
In traditional TCP/IP jargon, there are only two types of network devices: 1. Gatewaysand 2. Hosts.
Gateways forward packets between networks and hosts don't.
a host is connected to more than one network), it can forwardpackets between the networks. When a multi-homed host forwards packets, it acts likeany other gateway and is considered to be a gateway.
Each network has a
Maximum Transfer Unit(MTU)
which is the largest packet size it cantransmit. When packet size has to be more than its limit(eg the case when two networks ofdifferent MTU sizes interface), there has to be fragmentation.
Internet Control Message
This is connection-less(Datagram delivery