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Eigrp and Rip

Eigrp and Rip

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Published by: abhineet sharma on Nov 22, 2012
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Routing Concepts and Distance Vector Protocols, Part—II : Dynamic Routing(Source:Network Professional's Advaned Internetworking Guide, John WileyPublications)
Two versions of RIP, version 1 and version 2, work for IPv4 addressing. The primarydifference between the versions is that version 1 is a classful routing protocol and version 2is a classless routing protocol.
Distance Vector Routing in General:
operate only a small amount of information about thenetwork; need basic information about destination networks. Distance vector protocols mustknow
a specific distance and direction (or vector) to each destination network 
, hence thename of the protocols.
Distance vector routing protocols keep track of changes to the internetwork by
broadcasting periodic routing updates out all active interfaces.
Each broadcast includesthe complete routing table.
This can work okay, but the amount of CPU process and link bandwidth can be morethan you might want.
The slow convergence of distance vector routing protocols can result in inconsistentrouting tables and routing loops. Now for a
routing loop
to occur, a sequence of eventswould have to happen in perfect timing. If BrusRtr4 had sent its last update 1 secondbefore network E went down, then BrusRtr4 is not due to send another update for 29more seconds. (RIP’s update timer is 30 seconds.)
Hop Count:
RIP uses a very simple metric of hop count--simply the number of routers thatmust be traversed to get to a destination network. For a network that is directly connected,the hop count is 0.
Distance Vector Routing Protocol Looping Avoidance Mechanisms:
It’s caused by gossip(broadcasts) and wrong information being communicated then propagated throughout theinternetwork.
One way of solving this problem is to define a
maximum hop count
. RIP permits a hopcount of up to 15, so any network that requires 16 hops is deemed unreachable.
Split Horizon:
It is never useful to send routing information back in the direction fromwhich it was learned. In other words, the routing protocol identifies the interface anetwork route was learned on and won’t advertise the route back out that same interface.
Route Poisoning:
Poisoning the route, or sending updates for the route with hop count16, to a downed network keeps other routers from being susceptible to incorrect updates.When a router receives a poisoned route, it sends an update, called a
 poison reverse
,back to the notifying router. This breaks split horizon rule.
Hold Down:
Holddowns prevent routes from changing too rapidly by allowing time foreither the downed route to come back up or the network to stabilize somewhat beforechanging to the next best route.
Link State Protocols:
Link state routing protocols are classless routing protocols. Again, tobe a classless routing protocol, the subnet mask information is carried with the routingupdate so that all of the neighbouring routers know how large the advertised netwok is.
Except maintaining a routing table with the destination routes in it Link state routingprotocols maintain two additional tables--a
neighbor table
and a
topology table.
 Neighbour Table:
maintained through the use of
Hello packets,
exchanged by all routersto determine what other routers are available for exchange routing data. All routers thatcan share routing data are stored in the neighbor table.
Topology Table
is built and maintained through the use of
link state advertisements
 (LSA) or link state packets (LSP), depending on the protocol. The table contains a listingfor every destination network for every neighbor that the router can talk to.
 
It is essentially a map of the entire internetwork, and not just a map of the routes or pathsthat the local router is going to use.
Once all of routing data is shared and each one of the routers has the raw data in theirtopology table, then the routing protocol runs the
Shortest Path First (SPF)
algorithmagainst the raw data so that the best paths to each of the destination networks can befound.
EIGRP gives outs processed data to save CPU overuse.
Route Information Protocol(RIP)
RIPv1 uses classful routing; all devices in the network must use the same subnet mask. RIPversion 1 doesn’t include subnet mask information in updates.
RIP version 2 (RIPv2) provides something called prefix routing and sends subnet maskinformation with the route updates. In effect, RIPv2 becomes classless routing.
Timers: Route Update Timer
sets the interval (typically 30 seconds) between periodicrouting updates.
Route Invalid Timer
determines the length of time that must elapse (180 seconds)before a router determines that a route has become invalid. If a router hasn’t heard anyupdates about a particular route for that period, the router will send updates to all itsneighbors, letting them know that the route is invalid.
Route Flush Timer
sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its removalfrom the routing table (by default 240 seconds). Before it’s removed from the table, therouter notifies its neighbors of that route’s impending demise.
Configuring RIP:
You can add the RIP routing protocol by using the
router rip
commandand the
network 
command. The network command tells the routing protocol which classfulnetwork to advertise.
In addition to the network that will be advertised, the network command tells RIP whichactive interfaces to include in the routing process. Any interface that has an IP addresswithin the range of one of the network commands is then placed into the routingprocess.
How RIPv1 keeps classful
: Each of the interfaces has an IP address and mask on it,right? The router gets all the information that it needs from the interface configurations.And hence,
network 
command has not to be prvided with subnet information.
RIPv2:
Both RIPv1 and RIPv2 are configured with classful addressing (but RIPv2 isconsidered classless because subnet information is sent with each route update), andboth have the same administrative distance (120). If you leave a Cisco router with thedefault running version and do not issue a version command, then the router will sendonly version 1 updates. It will, however, receive or listen for version 1 or 2 updates.Also, this is multicast based rather than broadcast; allows for MD5 authentication.
Summarization in RIP:
if a router has four interfaces and the networks that areattached to those interfaces are 64 blocks of a class C network, then the
router wouldautomatically summarize the subnets and send a routing update for only the class
 network.
With RIPv2, you have the ability to send the classful network, each of the subnetsindividually, or to craft a new manual summary address that you choose.
*telling router to stop auto-summarizing.
*command to make manualsummary entry.
 
Troubleshooting RIP:
cheifly two dedicated commands are there:
Sh ip protocols
tells about active interfaces, networks being advertised, timers,neighbouring routers, AD.
Sh ip int brief 
can be used to see all the networks(which is LIKELY to be more thanthose being sent out in updates)
debug ip rip
and
terminal monitor
show how the router interfaces receive updates. It alsoshows that RIPv1 forces the interfaces to receive updates. Because RIPv2 doesn’t sendbroadcasts, it uses the multicast 224.0.0.9. So, even though the RIP packets could betransmitted onto a network with no routers, all hosts would just ignore them, makingRIPv2 a bit of an improvement over RIPv1.
Route Manipulation
One of those big reasons is to control routes coming through a redistribution configuration. Anothermight be to prevent routing information from leaving the internetwork, say preventing it from goinginto an ISP network. Sometimes there are links that, because of the bandwidth, you just don’t wantto have the updates being sent across.
Passive Interface:
when you don't need an interface to participate in sending routingupdates, use
 passive-interface
command. To set more than one(or all to passive), issue
 passive-interface default 
command.
 No passive-interface
to disable and make it active again.
For RIP/IGRP, a passive interface only stops sending routing updates, but still listensthem.
EIGRP/IS-IS(link state protocols) send hello packets to establish neighbourrelationships. A passive interface for this protocol means it will drop hello packets andhence there will be no neighbout relationships—no routin updates are even listenned tothen.
Distribute List:
to filter few routes and let others through an interface. It is an acl. But sinceAn access list doesn’t block traffic that is generated by the router, this is required.
You canapply a distribution list to an interface in the inbound or outbound direction
. Also to arouting protocol for the purpose of filtering routes when they are
redistributed— 
information of routes is exchanged between routing protocols operating in a network;ensures that each of the routing protocols understands the other and can share its routes
in cases where two or more redistribution points exist in the network, i
f the flow of routes is allowed to be redistributed more than once
, you can end up withinconsistent routing tables or worse routing loops that could cause data loss.
The command for applying a distribute list in the outbound direction is
distribute-list {access-list-number | name} out [interface-name | routing process [routing-process parameter]]
. The command is issued from within the routing protocol configurationmode.
The
distribute-list out 
command can be used to filter outgoing routing updates eitherfrom an individual interface or to routes being redistributed out into another routingprotocol. The command
cannot
, however, be used with a link state routing protocol toblock outbound updates (called link state advertisements, LSA) on an interface.
The command for applying a distribute list in the inbound direction is
distribute-list [access-list-number | name] | [route-map map-tag] in [interface-type interface-number.
The route map is a parameter for OSPF protocol.
Advanced Distance Vector Protocol
EIGRP
EIGRP has the ability to not only load balance across equal cost paths like other protocolsbut it can do so across unequal cost paths.

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