The IGMP snooping process requires the CPU in each switch to listen for, identify, andintercept a copy of all IGMP packets traveling between the routers and end hosts. Theprocess collects:*IGMP membership reports*IGMP leaves
If you are not careful about how you configure IGMP snooping, a switch may have tocollect every single Layer 2 multicast packet so that it can figure out which ones are IGMPpackets. This can have a significant, in some cases huge, impact on switch performance.
Protocol Independent Module(PIM)
PIM is the only multicasting routing protocol being supported by Cisco. In multicast, the paths arecalled
. You can have
shortest path trees (SPT) and shared trees
Multicast paths must be loop free, just as unicast paths are, but since the traffic can betraveling on multiple networks at the same time, a different method must be used to ensurethat no loops are made.
The method is called
reverse path forwarding (RPF)
. RPF has to check every singlemulticast packet that it receives to make sure that it is traveling in the correct direction.Packets must be traveling away from the root of the tree, always in the direction of the hostswho need the traffic.
The path back to the source must be verified to
ensure that the receiving interface is theinterface that has the best path back to the source.
If the interface is not in the best pathfrom the source, then it is assumed that the traffic is from
a looped path or was sent from adifferent place.
In either case, the packet is dropped. The actual multicast distribution treestell us the path from the source to the receivers or destinations; only traffic flowing over thatpath is accepted.
Shortest Path Tree:
With a shortest path tree, a separate tree is built from each source downto where each and every member of its group is located.
situation, the creation of the forwarding paths relies on a centrally locatedrouter called a
rendezvous point (RP),
serves as a go-between for the multicast sources anddestinations. Sources start out by sending their multicast traffic to the RP router, the RP thenforwards data down through a shared tree, ultimately to all the members of the group.The multicast routing protocols run in two modes: 1.
: where they assume that thenetwork is made for heavy multicast traffic; they first flood everywhere and then prune is whereever there aren't any receivers. 2.
use an explicit join mechanism. Using explicit tree join message information from the IGMP process, these protocols build distribution trees based ondemand. The join messages are sent by the routers that have directly connected receivers.
Multicast Operation and Configuration
You have to
start out with a multicast source
. There has to be some traffic or data that a usercan sign up for or request to receive. The sign up or request process can be accomplished byclicking on a link the user received in email or picking a selection from a multicastapplication loaded on their host machine.
The application must be updated somehow about the available data or sessions; the contentusually maps to one or more IP multicast groups.
The application might be getting its content from a directory service. Some type of directoryservices is available, and the application may contact the appropriate directory server. There