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Multi Casting

Multi Casting

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Published by abhineet sharma

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Published by: abhineet sharma on Nov 22, 2012
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In case of multicasting, multiple packets are generated at the gateway of destination, and not atsource. This saves a lot of bandwitdth.But, most of the multicasting applications use UDP which comes with its drawbacks. Some obviousones are discussed here:
Lack of congestion control:
can cause significant choking of bandwidth.
Duplicate packets:
when network topologies change, duplicate multicast packets aregenerated. The applications must be designed to handle this.
Out-of-sequence packets
No reliability of packet delivery
Security compromise:
Eavesdropping is quite possible.
Multicast Addressing
The multicast IP address range is– According RFC 3171, we have
There are three general groups of multicast address groups that are used for reference.Those groups include:
Local scope addresses
Global scope addresses
Administratively scoped addresses
Local scope addresses run from through and are reserved by InternetAssigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for network protocol use. Multicasts in this range arenever forwarded off the local link or network, no matter what the time to live (TTL) is (and
usually the TTL is set to 1).
The Multicast MAC Address:
lower order 23-bits of multicast IP address are mapped onto lower order 23-bits of MACaddress. You can tell that the MAC address is a multicast frame because the low-orderbit (0x01) in the first octet tells you that the frame is a multicast frame. The
0x01005e prefix (vendor code also known as OUI) has been reserved for use in mapping Layer 3 IP multicast addresses into Layer 2 MAC addresses,
You know there are 23 bits mapped into the MAC because the first 24 bits of the MACaddress are 0x01005e, and the 25th bit must be a zero. So, the last 23 bits of the MACcome from the last 23 bits of the IP address.
you must keep in mind that there are 32 IP or Layer 3 addresses that can potentially mapto a single Layer 2 multicast address.
Multicast Protocols
Internet Group Management Protocol(IGMP):
a host-to-router protocol used to enablehosts to join a multicast group if they want to receive a specific flow of traffic.
With the original, IGMP version 1, routers send a periodic membership query to themulticast address Hosts then send membership reports to the group multicastaddress they want to join.
One down side of version 1 is that hosts silently leave the multicast group, not notifyingthe router that they no longer wish to receive the traffic.
Group specific queries were introduced using which a router could query eachgroup singlely for the membership instead of asking all of them.
The difference between the group-specific query and the membership query is that amembership query is multicast to the all-hosts ( address. A group-specificquery, to group, for example, is a multicast to that specific group multicastaddress.
Leave a group message
lets the host tell router about its leaving and hence reducesgroup's time on when last member leaves.
Cisco Group Management Protocol
By default, Layer 2 switches treat multicast traffic like it has an unknown MAC address or abroadcast frame that causes the frame to be flooded out every port within a VLAN. This ishuge wastage of bandwidth.
You can think of CGMP as creating a type of client/server relationship, where the routerwould be considered a CGMP server and the switch takes on the client role. Protocol pro-cesses run on both devices.
The router takes in the IGMP messages, translates the messages into CGMP commands andsends them to the switch for processing.
In the switch, they are used to populate the Layer 2 forwarding tables with the multicastentries needed to forward multicast traffic out to the ports that requested it.
when the router receives an IGMP message packet, it creates a CGMP packet that containsthe request type (join or leave), the Layer 2 multicast MAC addresses, and the actual MACaddress of the client.(
CGMP actually gets Layer 3 device understand MACs
That packet is then sent to the well-known CGMP multicast MAC address,0x0100.0cdd.dddd. All Cisco switches running CGMP listen to this address. The CGMPcontrol message is then processed by the switch, and the proper entries are created in theswitch content-addressable memory (CAM) table.
IGMP Snooping
The IGMP snooping process requires the CPU in each switch to listen for, identify, andintercept a copy of all IGMP packets traveling between the routers and end hosts. Theprocess collects:*IGMP membership reports*IGMP leaves
If you are not careful about how you configure IGMP snooping, a switch may have tocollect every single Layer 2 multicast packet so that it can figure out which ones are IGMPpackets. This can have a significant, in some cases huge, impact on switch performance.
Protocol Independent Module(PIM)
PIM is the only multicasting routing protocol being supported by Cisco. In multicast, the paths arecalled
. You can have
shortest path trees (SPT) and shared trees
Multicast paths must be loop free, just as unicast paths are, but since the traffic can betraveling on multiple networks at the same time, a different method must be used to ensurethat no loops are made.
The method is called
reverse path forwarding (RPF)
. RPF has to check every singlemulticast packet that it receives to make sure that it is traveling in the correct direction.Packets must be traveling away from the root of the tree, always in the direction of the hostswho need the traffic.
The path back to the source must be verified to
ensure that the receiving interface is theinterface that has the best path back to the source.
If the interface is not in the best pathfrom the source, then it is assumed that the traffic is from
a looped path or was sent from adifferent place.
In either case, the packet is dropped. The actual multicast distribution treestell us the path from the source to the receivers or destinations; only traffic flowing over thatpath is accepted.
Shortest Path Tree:
With a shortest path tree, a separate tree is built from each source downto where each and every member of its group is located.
In a
shared tree
situation, the creation of the forwarding paths relies on a centrally locatedrouter called a
rendezvous point (RP),
serves as a go-between for the multicast sources anddestinations. Sources start out by sending their multicast traffic to the RP router, the RP thenforwards data down through a shared tree, ultimately to all the members of the group.The multicast routing protocols run in two modes: 1.
Dense Mode
: where they assume that thenetwork is made for heavy multicast traffic; they first flood everywhere and then prune is whereever there aren't any receivers. 2.
Sparse Mode:
use an explicit join mechanism. Using explicit tree join message information from the IGMP process, these protocols build distribution trees based ondemand. The join messages are sent by the routers that have directly connected receivers.
Multicast Operation and Configuration
You have to
start out with a multicast source
. There has to be some traffic or data that a usercan sign up for or request to receive. The sign up or request process can be accomplished byclicking on a link the user received in email or picking a selection from a multicastapplication loaded on their host machine.
The application must be updated somehow about the available data or sessions; the contentusually maps to one or more IP multicast groups.
The application might be getting its content from a directory service. Some type of directoryservices is available, and the application may contact the appropriate directory server. There

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