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IPv6

IPv6

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Published by: abhineet sharma on Nov 22, 2012
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12/04/2012

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IPv6(Source: Cisco Network Professional's AdvancedInternetworkingGuide, Sybex)
With the IPv6, the header and address structure was completely overhauled and many features thatwere add-ons or afterthoughts in IPv4 are now standard. One such feature is IPSec for end-to-endsecurity. Another is mobility, which allows a device to roam from one network to another withoutdropping connections.
IPv6 efficiency:
the header in an IPv6 packet removed half of fields and aligned the fields to 64 bits, whichallows processing and lookups to occur faster. Much of the information in the IPv4 headerthat was taken out in IPv6 can still be provided in optional extension headers .
The bigger address space allows more levels of hierarchy inside the address space, as well asflexible address architecture. It also allows for efficient and scalable routing because theaddresses can be aggregated more effectively.
broader use of multicast communication, which will increase efficiency of networks becausethe communications can be more specific .
new type called
anycast
: communication that allows an address to be placed on more thanone device. When traffic is sent to that address, it is routed to the nearest host with thatcommon address.
The second octet contains the lifetime flag and the scope of the address. There doesn’thave to be a time to live (TTL) for the address any more because with IPv6 it is defined inthe address. The first 4 bits of the second octet defines the lifetime and is either a 0 for apermanent address or a 1 for a temporary multicast address. The last 4 bits of the secondoctet defines the scope of the address.
device’s ability to automatically address itself, called
stateless autoconfiguration
, and thenthe other type of autoconfiguration, known as
stateful
. Stateful autoconfiguration uses aDHCP server and is very similar to what you might be used to with IPv4 configuration.
 
Autoconfiguration:
useful solution for allowing devices on a network to addressthemselves with a link-local unicast address. Autoconfiguration occurs by learning the prefixinformation from the router and then appending the device’s own interface address as theinterface ID.
The MAC address is used as the interface ID . The interface ID in the IPv6 address is 64bits in length and a MAC address is only 48 bits. Where did the extra 16 bits comefrom? The
MAC address is padded in the middle with FFFE
. For example, the IPv6address of a device with a MAC address of 0060.d673.1987 would look like this afterpadding 0260.d6FF.FE73.1987 .
Where did the 2 in the beginning of the address come from, right? Well, part of theprocess of padding (called modified eui-64 formatting) changes a bit to specify whetherthe address is locally unique or globally unique. The seventh bit in the address is thebit used. *
 A bit value of 1
= globally unique ; *
 A bit value of 0
= locally unique .

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