In 2007 and continuing up to the present, China began to become more assertive in pushingits sovereignty claims.
Chinese assertiveness involved putting foreign oil companies underdiplomatic pressure not to assist Vietnam in developing its hydrocarbon resources incontested maters and increasing aggressive action against Vietnamese boats in waterssurrounding the Paracel Islands. The year 2009 marked a turning point. China responded tosubmissions by Malaysia and Vietnam to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf by officially tabling for the first time a u‐shaped map containing ninedash lines claiming over eighty percent of the South China Sea. Chinese civilian agenciesthen became active in attempting to assert jurisdiction over these waters. This resulted innumerous incidents between China and the Philippines and Vietnam including Chineseactions in driving off an oil exploration vessel in waters claimed by the Philippines andcutting the cables on two vessels conducting seismic tests in Vietnam’s Exclusive EconomicZone (EEZ).
For background see: Ian Storey and Carlyle A. Thayer, “The South China Sea Dispute: A Review of Developments and Their Implications since the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties,” in K. V. Kesavanand Daljit Singh, eds.,
South and Southeast Asia: Responding to Changing Geo‐Political and Security Challenges
(Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies and New Delhi: KW Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2010), 57‐72; .CarlyleA. Thayer, “Recent Developments in the South China Sea: Implications for Peace, Stability and Cooperation inthe Region,” in Tran Truong Thuy, ed.,
The South China Sea: Cooperation for Regional Security and Development: Proceedings of the International Workshop co‐organized by the Diplomatic Academy of Vietnamand the Vietnam Lawyers’ Association, 26‐27 November 2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
(Hanoi: Nha Xuat Ban The Gioi,2010), 125‐138; Carlyle A. Thayer,
Recent Developments in the South China Sea: Grounds for CautiousOptimism?,
RSIS Working Paper No. 220 (Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, NanyangTechnological University, Singapore, December 14, 2010; Carlyle A. Thayer, “Security Cooperation in the SouthChina Sea: An Assessment of Recent Trends,” in,
National Security Review
special edition, The South China SeaReader, Papers and Proceedings of the Manila Conference on the South China Sea: Toward A Region of Peace,Cooperation and Progress, July 5‐6, 2011, Manila, Philippines (Manila: National Defense College of thePhilippines, Foreign Service Institute and Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam, 2011), 13‐40; Carlyle A. Thayer,“Recent Developments in the South China Sea: Implications for Regional Security,” in Tran Truong Thuy, ed.,
The South China Sea: Towards a Region of Peace, Security and Cooperation
(Hanoi: Nha Xuat Ban The Gioi,2011), 117‐140; Carlyle A. Thayer, “Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea and Southeast AsianResponses,”
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affair
, 30(2), 2011, 77‐104 and Carlyle A. Thayer, “China’sNew Wave of Aggressive Assertiveness in the South China Sea,”
The International Journal of China Studies
[Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya], 2(3), December 2011, 555‐583.