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4. e. Belajar Teori Behavior 1. Thorndike

4. e. Belajar Teori Behavior 1. Thorndike

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Published by: Var Riuz on Nov 22, 2012
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11/28/2013

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Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra InggrisPsikologi PendidikanBelajar_Teori_Behavior_Thorndike
 
Damajanti Kusuma Dewi 
EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE(1874-1949)
Isi :
1.
 
Major Theoretical Notiona.
 
Connectionismb.
 
Selecting and connectingc.
 
Learning is incremental, not insightfuld.
 
Learning is not mediated by idease.
 
All mammals learns in the same manner2.
 
Teori-teori Thorndikea. Sebelum 19301.
 
Primer
-
 
The Law of Readiness
-
 
The Law of Exercise
-
 
The Law of Effect2.
 
Sekunder
-
 
Multiple Response
-
 
Set or Attitude
-
 
Prepotency of Elements
-
 
Response by Analogy
-
 
Associative Shifting
Major Theoretical Notion
a.
 
Connectionism
Ada mekanisme syaraf yang menghubungkan antara stimulus yang diterimaoleh individu dengan respon yang dibuat oleh individu berdasarkan stimulustersebut.Thorndike’s theory of learning is called connectionism. He described it asthe association between sense impressions and impulses to action.Earlier on,associationism proposed linking of one idea with another (cf. Aristotle).
b.
 
Selecting and Connecting
Selecting (memilih) dan conneting(menghubungkan) adalah dasar dari trial anderror.Percobaan :
 
Seekor kucing dimasukkan dalam puzzle box(seperti gambar di sebelah kiri). Puzzle boxadalah sebuah kurungan dari besi, yangpintunya dapat dibuka dengan jalan menarikrantai (yang ada ditengah kurungan) atau
 
Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra InggrisPsikologi PendidikanBelajar_Teori_Behavior_Thorndike
 
Damajanti Kusuma Dewi 
menginjak pedal yang ada di dalamnya. Jika kucing tersebut ingin keluar,maka ia harus melakukan salah satu dari cara di atas.
 
Berdasarkan dari percobaan tersebut adalah beberapakali kucing melakukan tindakan coba-coba yangsemuanya bertujuan membuka pintu kurungan.Kesimpulan dari penelitian tersebut adalah :“semakin banyak trial, semakin sedikit waktu untukmenyelesaikan masalah”
c.
 
Learning is incremental, not insightful
Learning is incremental (blue line) andnot insightful (red line). Animal learnsby doing not by thinking or reasoning
 
Instrumental Learning
 
Learning terjadi dalam langkah-langkah/ tahap demi tahap yang sistematisbukan lompatan besarBerdasarkan penelitian : bahwa ada perbedaan waktu antara saat masalahbelum terpecahkan dengan saat masalah telah terpecahkan. Pada masalahyang belum terpecahkan, grafik menunjukkan gerak yang relatif stabil,tetapi setelah masalah terpecahkan grafik menunjukkan gerakmenurun (berarti semakin sedikit waktu yang digunakan untuk berpikir)
d.
 
Learning is not mediated by ideas
Learning terjadi secara langsung, tidak diperantarai oleh thinking ataureasoning
 
Berdasarkan penelitian :
 
The cat does not look over the situation, much less think it over, and thendecide what to do. It bursts out at once into the activities which instinctand experience have settled on as suitable reactions to the situation“confinement when hungry with food outside”. It does not ever in thecourse of its success realize that such an act brings food and thereforedecide to do it and thenceforth do it immediately from decision instead of from impulse.
e.
 
All mammals learn in the same manner
Pandangan Thorndike (1913) bahwa hukum belajar untuk semua binatang –termasuk manusia adalah sama
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Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra InggrisPsikologi PendidikanBelajar_Teori_Behavior_Thorndike
 
Damajanti Kusuma Dewi 
Teori-teori Thorndike
Sebelum 19301.
 
Primera. The Law of Readiness
The law of readiness tertulis dalam Original Nature of Man – 1913, yangterbagi dalam tiga bagian, dan disingkat sebagai berikut :1.
 
When a conduction unit is ready to conduct, conduction by it issatisfying2.
 
For a conduction unit ready to conduct, not to conduct is annoying3.
 
When a conduction unit is not ready for conduction and is forced toconduct, conduction by it is annoyingKetiga bagian dari law of readiness, diubah dalam istilah yang lebih baru,menjadi :1.
 
When someone is ready to perform some act, to do so is satisfying2.
 
When someone is ready to perform some act, not to do so is annoying3.
 
When someone is not ready to perform some act, and is forced to do soit is annoyingCatatan :
-
 
A satisfying state of affair = suatu kondisi dimana mahkluk tidak maumenghindarinya, berusaha untuk memperoleh atau mempertahankannya
-
 
An annoying state of affair = suatu kondisi dimana mahkluk berusahauntuk menghindari atau mengabaikannya
b. The Law of Exercise
Teori ini terdari dari dua bagian, yaitu :1.
 
Connections between a stimulus and a response are strengthened as theyare used. In other words, merely exercising the connection between astimulating situation and a response strengthens the connection betweenthe two. This is the part of the law of exercise called
the law of use.
 2.
 
The law of disuseConnections between situation and response are weakened when practiceis discontinued or if the neural bond is not used. This is the portion of the law of exercise called
the law of diuse.c. The Law of Effect
1.
 
 Jika respon diikuti oleh satisfying state of affairs maka akanmemperkuat hubungan antara stimulus dan respon2.
 
 Jika respon diikuti oleh annoying state of affairs maka akanmemperlemah hubungan antara stimulus dan respon

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