330 ACI Structural Journal/May-June 2012
is a Research Engineer at the Concrete Research Center, KoreaConcrete Institute (KCI), Seoul, Korea. He received his BS, MS, and PhD inarchitectural engineering rom Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea, in1994, 1996, and 2003, respectively. His research interests include the conceptualdesign o reinorced concrete structures, punching shear, and the modeling techniques or fat plates.
Jang-Ho Jay Kim
is an Associate Proessor at the School o Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Korea. He received his BS rom the University o Caliornia, Los Angeles, CA, in 1992; his MS rom the University o Caliornia, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, in 1993; and his PhD rom Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, in 1998. His research interests include concrete structural and material behaviorsunder various loading conditions, especially extreme loading cases such as blasts,impacts, typhoons, and so on.
the control perimeter to the eective depth are sufcientlysmall, the punching shear strength is
1(in SI units; MPa, mm)34 (in U.S. customary units; psi, in.)
ACI c o ACI c o
V f b d V f b d
= l ′= l ′
is the modifcation actor or lightweight concrete,taken as unity or normalweight concrete. I the averagesplitting tensile strength
o lightweight concrete is speci-fed,
can be substituted by
1.0 in SI units(or
1.0 in U.S. customary units). Equation (2)then becomes
3(in both SI and U.S. customary units)5
ACI ct ct o
V f b d
According to EC2, or concrete compressive strength
50 MPa (7.3 ksi), the redistribution o bending momentscan be implemented in design without explicitly checkingthe rotation capacity provided that
(/)where Class B and C reinforcements are used(refer to Annex C in EC2)
k k x d k
δ ≥ +δ ≥
is the ratio o the redistributed moment to the elasticbending moment; and
is the depth o the neutral axis at anultimate limit state ater redistribution. The recommendedvalues o
are 0.44, 1.25(0.6 + 0.0014/
),and 0.7, respectively. The ultimate strain
is equal to0.0035 when
is not more than 50 MPa (7.3 ksi).For concentric punching shear ailure, the design shearequation o
is a unction o the tension reinorcementratio
and the size eect actor
o the slab.
0.18(100) (in SI units; MPa, mm)5(100) (in U.S. customary units; psi, in.)
EC c EC c
V k f u d V k f u d
= r′= r′
is the control perimeter length o a critical section(at a distance o 2
rom the ace o the column). The tensionreinorcement ratio
can be computed as a mean value byassuming that a slab width equals the column width plus 3
onboth sides. Additionally, the size eect actor
can be calcu-lated using
(or 17.87 in./)
The slab-column systems or edge panels were tested byRangan and Hall.
In the test, all reinorcements yieldedand the bending moment o the test slabs was ully redis-tributed beore punching shear ailure occurred. The testresults
showed that between the uncracked state and themaximum load state there was a considerable redistributiono moments, with the midspan and two end-span momentsvarying by approximately 50%. The tests also showed thatnear maximum load capacities, the moment redistribution iscontrolled largely by the reinorcement layout implementedby the designer.For punching shear strength, the ACI 318 equation(Eq. (2)) is oten criticized or ailing to account or thecontributions o exural reinorcements. The CEB-FIP Task Group
showed that the punching shear strength is reducedwith a decreasing tension reinorcement ratio in a punchingshear zone, and this fnding was verifed by the test reports o Collins and Kuchma
and Guandalini et al.
In addition, theirtest results demonstrated that the ACI 318 shear equation,which does not account or the tension reinorcement ratio,may lead to a less conservative estimate o the punchingshear strength or slabs with low reinorcement ratios.
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMDesign o test slabs
The current ACI 318 design code states that the exuralstrength
varies approximately in proportion to the tensionreinorcement ratio, whereas the punching shear strength
does not correlate with the tension reinorcement ratio.Thus, the exural and punching ailure lines can be repre-sented by a diagonal line (
) and a horizontal line (
),respectively (Fig. 2). The intersection o the diagonal andhorizontal lines is the transition point (c), which marks thechange in behavior rom ductile ailure to brittle ailure o aat plate.The design o the test slabs in this study ocused on thetransition point such that the exural and punching ail-ures can occur simultaneously. The punching shear loadwas calculated or the test slabs according to ACI 318-08(Eq. (2)) and converted to the load distributed on the testslabs. A total static moment
was then obtained rom a ree
Fig. 2—Test slab design concept.