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Hydrogen as an energy carrier

Hydrogen as an energy carrier

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Hydrogen Report by the Royal Belgian Academy Council.
Hydrogen Report by the Royal Belgian Academy Council.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: LimeisMore on Nov 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/14/2013

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Royal Belgian Academy Councilof Applied Science
Hydrogen as an energy carrier
April 2006
“We urge all nations, in line with the United Nations Future Climate Change Conferenceprinciples, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts andensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. As nationalscience academies, we commit to working with governments to help develop and implement thenational and international response to the challenge of climate change.”
 Joint Science Academies’ statement : Global response to climate change
, July 2005Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van Belgiëvoor Wetenschappen en KunstenPaleis der AcademiënHertogsstraat 1, 1000 BrusselAcadémie royale des Sciences, des Lettres et desBeaux-Arts de BelgiquePalais des AcadémiesRue Ducale 1, 1000 Bruxelles
 
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The Belgian Academy Council of Applied Science (BACAS) consists of CAWET (a committee of theKoninklijke Vlaamse Academie van België voor Wetenschappen en Kunsten) and CAPAS (acommittee of the Académie royale des Sciences, des Lettres & des Beaux-Arts de Belgique). Itsmembers come from academia and from industry.
Why this report ?
The one-way street towards the depletion of the fossil fuels (starting with oil), the economicdevelopment of many countries with increasing energy needs, world competition and volatility of prices, the strive at ensuring the security of supply, concerns about greenhouse gases emissions and of a too- rapid climate change, the amount of time and investment required for fine tuning an energypolicy or developing new technologies, the reluctance of people to change their behaviour, all thesefactors put energy as top priority among the most important and difficult problems facing policy anddecision makers.Hydrogen has been and is widely mentioned as part of the solution to these problems.This report reviews and summarizes in simple terms the extensive and evolving knowledge availableon the hydrogen economy, with a special emphasis on Belgium. Care should be taken that ouruniversities and companies do not exclude themselves from the scientific and economic future forsupplying the world with sufficient and affordable clean energy.The goal is to make useful and practical recommendations to the authorities in terms of research &development, demonstration projects and applications.
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................................4 1. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................8 2. STRUCTURE OF THE ENERGY SECTOR ...............................................................................9 3. MOTIVATION FOR AN ADDITIONAL ENERGY CARRIER ..............................................10 3.1 Primary sources
 
 diversification and reduction of the dependency on fossil energy
 
 ........10 3.2 Reduction of the environmental impact of the energy system ...........................................10 3.3 Maintain acceptable costs and be sure to stabilize the prices for a long time ..................11 4. ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS OF HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER ..........11 5. PRODUCTION............................................................................................................................13 5.1 From fossil fuels...................................................................................................................13 5.2 From biomass.......................................................................................................................15 5.3 From electricity....................................................................................................................16  5.4 From high temperature heat by thermochemical water splitting.......................................17  5.5 From photochemical energy................................................................................................17  5.6 By-product of chemical production processes....................................................................18
5.7
Conclusion............................................................................................................................186. STORAGE....................................................................................................................................186.1 Physical storage....................................................................................................................196.2 Chemical storage..................................................................................................................206.3 Conclusion............................................................................................................................207. TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION........................................................................................218. UTILIZATION.............................................................................................................................228.1 Present utilization ................................................................................................................228.2 Future utilization.................................................................................................................23 9. NEED FOR TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENT AND R&D PROGRAMMES...........................27 10. ROADMAP FOR IMPLEMENTATION..................................................................................27 11. CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................30 12. RECOMMENDATIONS ...........................................................................................................3013. REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................32  Appendix A : Comparative hydrogen properties.............................................................................33 Appendix B :Present utilization of hydrogen..................................................................................35 List of acronyms...............................................................................................................................38WORKING GROUP MEMBERS....................................................................................................38

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