The Origin of Shiaism
The word "Shia" is applied to the workers of a political party. In Arabic languagethere is an expression. It means that such man is a follower or supporter of such andsuch man. Allama Zubaidi is of opinion that the word Shia stands for all those peoplewho evolve a consensus on a particular issue and for any person who joins the groupor party of another person as a token of support and assistance. He is includedamong his Shias. The word Shia in fact derives from which means obedience andsubmission. In Islam the word was employed in its real and actual sense. It was alsoapplied to those political groups and parties that entertained a difference of opinionon different martyrdom of Hazrat Usman (r.a) when serious differences developedbetween Hazrat Ali (r.a) and Hazrat Muawiyah (r.a). The people who belonged to theparty of Hazrat Ali (r.a) were known as 'Shia of Ali'. They believed that Hazrat Ali(r.a) was the fourth Caliph and had a better claim over the Caliphate as compared toHazrat Muawiyah (r.a). Therefore they supported Ali during the battle wagedbetween him and Muawiyah (r.a). The Shia and Muawiyah (r.a) held a diametricallyopposite opinion. They believed that the murderers of Caliph Hazrat Usman (r.a) had joins Ali's (r.a) party and secured asylum under his strong wing. Besides, the Shiasof Muawiyah (r.a) did not recognize the claim of Hazrat Ali (r.a) over Khilafat.However, they promised to return to Ali (r.a) and acknowledge him as the Caliph if he avenged the murder of Hazrat Usman (r.a) by executing his murderers. Thehistorians have reported that when Hazrat Ali (r.a) sent 'Adi bin Sayyada bin Hafsato persuade Muawiyah (r.a) to pledge his surrender and submission, he replied: "youhave invited me to join the party and pledge my submission (to him). As far as theparty is concerned I have no reservations about its support for me. But as far assubmission is concerned, (tell me) how can I submit myself to a person who isaccused s an accomplice in the murder of Hazrat Usman (r.a). He denies hisinvolvement in the murder and I do not accuse him of murder either. But he hasfurnished refuge to the murderers of Hazrat Usman (r.a). If this is not so, he shouldhand over the murders of Hazrat Usman (r.a) to use so that we may take ourrevenge by putting them to death. If he is willing to agree to our proposal, we arealso willing to obey him and to join his party".Muawiyah (r.a had given the same reply to Abu Aldarda (r.a) and Hazrat AbuUmamah (r.a) when Hazrat Ali (r.a) dispatched them on a similar mission:"Go and tell Mr. Ali that he should take revenge from the murderers of Hazrat Usman(r.a) and impose Qisas on them. Then I'll be the first among the Syrians to pledgefealty to him".At the early stage of negotiations Hazrat Ali (r.a) had sent Jarir bin Abdullah to inviteMuawiyah (r.a) to take the oath of allegiance at his hand. Hazrat Muawiyah (r.a)called for Hazrat Umro bin Aas (r.a) and other Prominent Syrians to seek their adviceon the matter. They refused to acknowledge the over-lordship of Hazrat Ali (r.a) untilhe excited the murderers of Hazrat Usman (r.a) or handed the killers over to them.*The historians also report that on their return Hazrat Abu Aldarda (r.a) and HazratAbu Umamah (r.a) conveyed Muawiyah message to Hazrat Ali (r.a). He replied:"Both of you can see these people-he pointed towards a number of people who hadgathered there-All of them acknowledge that they are the murderers of HadhratUsman (r.a). If any one has the might, ( I challenge him ) to take Qisas".