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psychology

psychology

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Published by Anshu Kumar Gupta
psychology
psychology

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Published by: Anshu Kumar Gupta on Nov 23, 2012
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08/17/2013

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MemoryExamplesMemory factors and performanceMemory errors
 –
eyewitness testimonyUnderstanding memoryAbility to retain or reactivate past experience, thoughts, images and ideasContent and processWe rely on a set of complex processes to learn, understand and retainThree important aspects:Structure of the information processing system (connections between data and storedknowledge)Organization of information and its link with processingDifferent ways of encoding and remembering and their practical implicationsMemory ProcessesTransformationReductionElaborationRecoveryRetrievalReconstructionThe information processing approachIPAImportant in the development of models of processes and stages involved in human learning andmemoryThe computer metaphorMajor characteristics of IPA
 
Analysis of information into stagesLimited capacity assumptionControl mechanismsTwo way flow of informationThe fundamental memory systemAttkinson and Shiffirin modelProcesses and stages of memoryTypes of memorySensory memory (SM), Short term memory (STM), Long term memory (LTM)Sensory memoryThe first system involved in the memory processExample: Listening to a language one is not very familiar withPersists for very brief periods (1-2 sec) after the stimulus has been removedIconic and echoic sensory memory (bulk of research)Sounds tend to reverberate for a while longerLinked to pattern recognition and feature extraction (selectivity)Pattern recognition and two way flow of informationSper
ling’s (1960) work on iconic memory
Sensory memory: Some aspectsDurationAttention and limited capacity
 
Broadbent’s theory of attention
 
 
The ‘cocktail Party’ phenomenon
 
 
Shadowing experimentsUnattended messages are processed for meaning
 
Evidence that stages of memory are not sharply distinguished
What happens if traces did remain in sensory storage much longer? (distinctiveness of experience)
 Short term memory (STM)Traditionally thought to be the intermediate stage between SM and LTMDuration: About 30 secWe are aware of the content of STM consciouslyImmediate memoryWorking memoryA distinction is made between STM and LTM (issue)Researchers have described a syndrome in brain damaged patients (hippocampus damage): Theyremember things they knew before the injury and they can remember something new as long as theykeep rehearsing it. Cannot store in LTM.
STM…
Evidence for a distinction between LTM and STM comes from studies in free recallRepresenting the pattern of recall as a serial position curveRecall of a word depends on its position in the listPrimacy and recency effectsThe recency effect fades out if retention is delayed even by few seconds (last few items in the list werein the STM. Ex: Telephone number in STMThe serial position curve
STM…
Working memory: Baddeley and HitchTripartite system: The central executive and two slave systemsPhonological loopVisio spatial sketchpadEpisodic buffer (later added)

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