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An Overview of Lactic Acid Bacteria

An Overview of Lactic Acid Bacteria

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Published by Anowar Razvy
International Journal of Biosciences (IJB)

ISSN: 2220-6655 (Print) 2222-5234 (Online) Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 1-13, 2011 http://www.innspub.net
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An overview of lactic acid bacteria
Khalisanni Khalid Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Received: 02 May 2011 Revised: 14 May 2011 Accepted: 15 May 2011

Key words: Antimicrobial compound, fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB).

Abst
International Journal of Biosciences (IJB)

ISSN: 2220-6655 (Print) 2222-5234 (Online) Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 1-13, 2011 http://www.innspub.net
OPEN ACCESS

REVIEW PAPER

An overview of lactic acid bacteria
Khalisanni Khalid Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Received: 02 May 2011 Revised: 14 May 2011 Accepted: 15 May 2011

Key words: Antimicrobial compound, fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB).

Abst

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Anowar Razvy on Nov 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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1
| Khalid
REVIEW PAPER
 
OPEN ACCESS
 
An overview of lactic acid bacteria
Khalisanni Khalid
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM),40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia 
Received: 02 May 2011Revised: 14 May 2011Accepted: 15 May 2011
 
Key words:
Antimicrobial compound, fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB).
 
 Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are renowned for the potential of producing antimicrobial compound and other value added products. Undeniable to concern these probiotic has contributed to the importance of humanlife. Deserving an attention for its capabilities, this paper will discuss on the general description of lactic acid bacteria, genetics, metabolism and its application to the industries.
Corresponding Author: Khalisanni Khalid
typhloids@gmail.com
International Journal of Biosciences (IJB)
ISSN: 2220-6655 (Print) 2222-5234 (Online)Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 1-13, 2011http://www.innspub.net
 
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| Khalid
Introduction
 
The term Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) was gradually accepted in the beginning of the 20
th
century (Carol
et. al 
., 2010). Other terms as “milk souring” and“lactic acid producing” bacteria had previously been
used for the same bacteria causing a slight confusion.This ended with publication of a monograph aboutlactic acid bacteria written by Orla-Jensen, 1919, a work that had great impact on the systematic of LAB(Axelsson, 1989). Classification of LAB genera was based on morphology, mode of glucose fermentation,growth at certain temperatures, and range of sugarutilization. Even though the taxonomy has beenrevised since then, characters used by Orla-Jensen arestill very important in current classification of LAB.Lactic acid bacteria constitute a group of bacteria thathave morphological, metabolic and physiologicalsimilarities, and they are also relatively closely relatedphylogenetically. The general description of the bacteria within the group is gram-positive, non-sporulating, non-respiring cocci or rods, which do,through fermentation of carbohydrates, produce lacticacid as their major end product. The commonagreement is that there is a core group consisting of four genera;
 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus
 and
 Streptococcus
. Recent taxonomic revisions haveproposed several new genera and the remaining groupnow comprises the following:
 Aerococcus, Alloiococcus, Carnobacterium, Dolosigranulum, Enterococcus, Globicatella, Lactococcus, Oenococcus,Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella. Lactobacilli, Carnobacteria
and some
Weissella
arerods while the remaining genera are cocci (Jin
 
et al 
.,
 
2009). For identification of LAB, phenotypic methodshave been most commonly used (Corsetti
et. al 
.,
 
2001). More recently, genetic techniques, such as 16SrDNA sequencing have been developed which allows amore consistent and accurate identification of individual strains (Buddhiman
et al 
., 2008).Determination of short sequences of 16S rDNA istoday used as a simple way for species determinationof isolates of lactic acid bacteria (Schleifer & Ludwig,1995).
 
The taxonomy of Lactic Acid Bacteria has been basedon the gram reaction and the production of lactic acidfrom various fermentable carbohydrates. Theclassification of lactic acid bacteria into differentgenera is largely based on morphology, mode of glucose fermentation, growth at differenttemperatures, and configuration of the lactic acidproduced, ability to grow at high salt concentrations,and acid or alkaline tolerance. For some of the newly described genera (Pilar
et. al 
., 2008), additionalcharacteristics such as fatty acid composition andmotility are used in classification. The measurementsof true phylogenetic relationship with rRNA sequencing have aided the classification of lactic acid bacteria and clarified the phylogeny of the group.Most genera in the group form phylogenetically distictgroup, but some, in particular
 Lactobacillus
and
 Leuconostoc
are very heterogeneous and thephylogenetic cluster do not correlate with the currentclassification based on phenotypic characters. New tools for classification and identification of lactic acid bacteria are underway (Sascha and Magdalena 2010).The most promising for routine used are nucleic acidprobing techniques, partial rRNA gene sequencingusing the polymerase chain reaction, and solubleprotein patterns. The growth is optimum at pH 5.5-5.8 and the organisms have complex nutritionalrequirements for amino acids, peptides, nucleotide bases, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids andcarbohydrates
.
 Lactic Acid Bacteria are gram-positive usually non-motile, non-spore-forming rods and cocci. They lack the ability to synthesize cytochromes and porphyrins(components of respiratory chains) and thereforecannot generate ATP by creation of a proton gradient.The LAB can only obtain ATP by fermentation, usually of sugars. Since they do not use oxygen in their energy production, lactic acid bacteria happily grow under
 
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| Khalid
anaerobic conditions, but they can also grow inoxygen's presence. They are protected from oxygen byproducts (e.g. H
2
O
2
) because they have peroxidases.These organisms are aerotolerant anaerobes(Michaela
 
et al 
.,
 
2009). Two main sugar fermentationpathways can be distinguished among lactic acid bacteria. Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway)results in almost exclusively lactic acid as end productunder standard conditions, and the metabolism isreferred to as homolactic fermentation (Derek 
et al 
.,2009). The 6-phosphogluconate/phosphoketolasepathway results in significant amounts of other endproducts, such as ethanol, acetate, and CO
2
inaddition to lactic acid and the metabolism is referredto as heterolactic fermentation. Various growthconditions may significantly alter the end-productformation by some lactic acid bacteria. These changescan be attributed to an altered pyruvate metabolismand/or the use of external electron acceptors such asoxygen or organic compounds.
Physiology and morphology 
Orla-Jensen used a few characters as classification basis: morphology (cocci or rods, tetrad formation),mode of glucose fermentation (homo- orheterofermentation), growth
at certain “cardinal”
temperatures (e.g., 10ºC and 45ºC), and form of lacticacid produced (D, L, or both) (Kenji
et al 
., 2009). As well be seen, these characters are still very importantin current lactic acid bacteria classification. After the work by Orla-Jensen, the view emerged that the coreof lactic acid bacteria comprised four genera:
 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus
and
 Streptococcus
. There has always been somecontroversy on what the boundaries of the group are, but this will not be dealt with here. The classificationsection of this chapter will concentrate on these fourgenera, or rather what used to be these genera, sincemajor taxonomic revisions have recently resulted inthe description of new genera (Sangoyomi
et al 
.,2010).Orla-Jense
n regarded lactic acid bacteria as a “greatnatural group,” indicating a belief that the bacteria
included were phylogenetically related and separatedfrom other groups. At that time, only phenotypecharacters could be examined and evaluatedphylogenetic markers. Today, we have means toexamine, in detail, macro-molecules of the cell, believed to be more accurate in defining relationshipsand phylogenetic positions. These are, of course, thenucleic acids. Fortunately, nature has provided us with different kind of nucleic acids for different kindof taxonomic studies. Close relations (at species andsubspecies level) can be determined with DNA-DNA homology studies (Todd
 
1993). For determiningphylogenetic positions of species and genera,ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is more suitable, since thesequence contains both well-conserved and less-conserved regions. It is now possible to determine thesequence of long stretch of rRNA (~1500 bases of 16SrRNA) from bacteria (Huili
et al 
., 2011) comparisonsof these sequences are currently the most powerfuland accurate technique for determining phylogeneticrelationships of microorganisms (Philippe et. al.,2009). With this technique, a clearer picture of phylogeny of lactic acid bacteria is emerging, and theideas of Orla-Jensen can be examined with someaccuracy. In addition, rRNA sequencing is becomingan important aid in the classification of lactic acid bacteria, as exemplified by the descriptions of new genera (De Klerk 
et al 
., 1967; Dower
et al 
., 1988).The physiology of lactic acid bacteria has been of interest ever since it was recognized that these bacteria involved in the acidification of food and feedproducts. Increased knowledge of lactic acid bacteriaphysiology, such as metabolism and nutrientutilization has been one way to achieve morecontrolled processes. Today, modern genetictechniques are considered to be promising in thisregard. However, effort in this direction will not befruitful unless there is a sound understanding of thephysiology of these bacteria. The designation Lactic

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