Motivation of the main paper:
The QHE was discovered by Klaus von Klitzing in 1980 when he was able to measure plateausand confirm quantization of the Hall resistance and was awarded the 1895 Nobel Prize onPhysics.The claim of this paper is explain in a qualitative way all the topics related with the Hall effectand 2DEG:
classical Hall effect
approach to thereal quantum case
obtaining a 2DEG
; and so give a solid explanation of the Integer QuantumHall Effect (IQHE), namely, of what von Klitzing found in 1980. Mathematical treatment areavoid for a better understanding of readers, trying to present the ideas in intuitive way whenpossible. However some formulas shall have to be written. As a view of the QHE at the present,QSHE and 2D topological insulators will be introduced.
Typical figure of QHE
: data measurement plotted for both Hall and longitudinal resistance; the approximatedensity of states, which shows localized and extendedstates; the Hall bar with its ohmic contacts (in dataplotting is shown the way voltage it’s measured fromresistance is obtained).
(*) Preliminary note: In this paper Gaussian units are used (for magnetic fieldsB=H/c)