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Basic Operation of Airbag System

Basic Operation of Airbag System

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Published by: Muhammad Zainul Abidin on Nov 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Basic Operation Of Airbag System
 An airbag is avehicle safetydevice. It is an occupant restraint system consisting of a flexibleenvelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobilecollision.Its purpose is to cushionoccupants during a crash and provide protection to their bodies when they strike interior objectssuch as the steering wheel or a window. Modernvehiclesmay contain multiple airbags invarious side and frontal locations of the passenger seating positions, and sensors may deployone or more airbags in an impact zone at variable rates based on the type and severity of impact; the airbag is designed to only inflate in moderate to severe frontal crashes. Airbags arenormally designed with the intention of supplementing the protection of an occupant who iscorrectly restrained with aseatbelt.Most designs are inflated through pyrotechnic means andcan only be operated once.1.Ignition judgment and conditions(1)Front collisionWhen both the deceleration sensor and safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turnon, the driver airbag, front passenger airbag and seat belt pretensioners are ignited.The center airbag sensor assembly switches the threshold level that should be activatedaccording to the signal from the front airbag sensors (front satellite sensor).The safing sensor of the center airbag sensor assembly is designed to be turned on by asmaller deceleration rate than the deceleration sensor.There used to be a three sensor type in which the driver airbag, front passenger airbag and seatbelt pretensioners were ignited when the front airbag sensor turned on or the decelerationsensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turned on, and the safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turned on.There also used to be a one sensor type that had no front airbag sensor and performed all thecontrol only with the airbag sensor assembly.(2)Front side collisionThe safing sensor of the center airbag sensor assembly is designed to be activated by a smaller deceleration rate than the deceleration sensor of the side airbag sensor. As illustrated, ignitionof the side airbag and curtain shield airbag is caused when current flows to the initiator, whichhappens when a safing sensor and the deceleration sensor go on simultaneously.Some model with E-type SRS airbags have a safing sensor in the side airbag sensor.Vehicle with side door sensor When the safing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly turns on and the deceleration
sensor in the side door sensor or in the side airbag sensor is on, the side airbag and curtainshield airbag are ignited.(3)Rear side collisionWhen both the safing sensor and the deceleration sensor in the curtain shield airbag sensor turn on, the curtain shield airbag is deployed.Some models have a safing sensor outside the curtain shield airbag sensor and control with thesafing sensor in the center airbag sensor assembly.
Basic Operation Of Keyless Entry System
 A keyless entry system is anelectronic lockthat controls access to a building or vehiclewithout using a traditional mechanicalkey.The term keyless entry system originally meant a lockcontrolled by akeypadlocated at or near the driver's door, that required pressing apredetermined (or self-programmed) numeric code for entry. These systems, having evolvedinto a hidden touch-activated keypad, are still available on certain Ford or Lincoln models.The term remote keyless system (RKS), or more commonly just as keyless entry, refers to alock that uses an electronic remote control as a key which is activated by a handheld device or automatically by proximity.Widely used in automobiles, an RKS performs the functions of a standardcar keywithoutphysical contact. When within a few yards of the car, pressing a button on the remote can lockor unlock the doors, and may perform other functions. A remote keyless system can includeboth a remote keyless entry system (RKE), which unlocks the doors, and a remote keylessignition system (RKI), which starts the engine.
Basic Operation Of Tires Pressure Monitoring System
 A tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is anelectronicsystem designed to monitor theair  pressureinside thepneumatic tireson various types of vehicles. TPMS report real-time tire- pressure information to the driver of thevehicle,either via a gauge, a pictogram display, or asimple low-pressure warning light. TPMS can be divided into two different types
direct(dTPMS)and indirect (iTPMS). TPMS are provided both at an OEM (factory) level as well as anaftermarket solution.Direct TPMSDirect TPMS employ pressure sensors on each tire, either internal or external. The sensorsphysically measure the tire pressure in each tire and report it to the vehicle's instrument cluster 
or a corresponding monitor, sometimes also the temperature inside the tire. These systems canidentify under-inflation in any combination, be it one tire or all four, simultaneously. Although thesystems vary in transmitting options, many TPMS products (both OEM and aftermarketsolutions) can display real time tire pressures at each location monitored whether the vehicle ismoving or parked. There are many different solutions but all of them have to face the problemsof limited battery lifetime and exposure to tough environments. If the sensors are mounted onthe outside of the wheel, which is the case for some aftermarket systems, they are in danger of mechanical damage, aggressive fluids and other substances as well as theft. If they aremounted on the inside of the rim, they are no longer easily accessible for service like batterychange and additionally, the RF communication has to overcome the damping effects of the tirewhich additionally increases the need for energy. A direct TPMS sensor consists of following main functions requiring only a few externalcomponents
e.g., battery, housing, PCB
to get the sensor module that is mounted to thevalve stem inside the tire:
pressure sensor;
analog-digital converter;
system controller;
radio frequency transmitter;
low frequency receiver, and
voltage regulator (battery management).Most originally fitted dTPMS have the sensors mounted on the inside of the rims and thebatteries are not exchangeable. With a battery change then meaning that the whole sensor willhave to be replaced and the exchange being possible only with the tires dismounted, the lifetimeof the battery becomes a crucial parameter. To save energy and prolong battery life, manydTPMS sensors hence do not transmit information during standstill at all or apply a complex andexpensive two-way communication which enables an active wake-up of the sensor by thevehicle.For dTPMS to work properly, they need to recognize the sensor positions and have to ignorethe signals from other vehicles' sensors. There are hence numerous tools and procedures tomake the dTPMS "learn" or "re-learn" this information, some of them can be carried out by thedriver, others need to be done by the workshops or even require special electronic tools. The

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