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Conventional Textile Fibres_By_AbuBakkar Marwat

Conventional Textile Fibres_By_AbuBakkar Marwat

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Published by Abu Bakkar
Classification, characteristics and comparison of different conventional textile fibres
Classification, characteristics and comparison of different conventional textile fibres

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Categories:Types, Reviews
Published by: Abu Bakkar on Nov 25, 2012
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12/15/2012

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Advanced Textile Materials (TE-571)
NTU Faisalabad
M.Sc Textile Engineering 1
st
Semester
Page
1
of 
4
 
Abu Bakkar Marwat
(
M.Sc Textile Engineering
)
 
texengr05@yahoo.com
CONVENTIONAL FIBRES:
Fibres having a minimum length of about 15 mm, a width range of 10-50µm and strength of about 6cN/tex can be used as textile fibres.
1)
 
Natural Fibres:
 
There are mainly four types of Natural Fibres:
 – 
 
Wool Fibre
 – 
 
Silk Fibres
 – 
 
Cotton Fibres
 – 
 
Flax and Ramie
a-
 
Wool Fibres:
 
It refers to fibres from sheep, goats, camels, oxen and fur-bearing animals.
 
 
It was one of the first fibres to be spun into yarn and woven into fabric.
 
It is composed of a protein polymer called keratin.
 
It is generally crimped three dimensionally which ranges from 4-10 per centimeter.
 
In apparel production fibre length ranges from 50
 –
120 mm, width from 14
 –
45 µm and strengthfrom 12
 –
18 cN/tex.
 
She
ep’s wool is the most important type of wool fibre because of its availability in abundance.
 
Hair of the camel, alpaca, llama and vicuna are costly wool fibres.
 
Woven and knitted woolen fabrics drape well and are durable; and are used primarily in luxurysweaters, coats and suits.
 
They are comfortable under various conditions and retain good appearance during wear andcare.
b-
 
Silk Fibres:
 
A fine, strong and the only natural continuous filament fibre produced by the larva of certaininsects, especially silkworm, when constructing their cocoons.
 
Silk is a natural protein fibres composed of fibroin.
 
Reeling of silk and converting it into fabric were known to Chinese in 2640 BC.
 
China retained the monopoly of silk industry for over 3000 years.
 
Now china, India and Japan are the main producers of silk.
 
Cultivated and wild types of silk differ in diameter, cross sectional shape and fine structure.
 
Most important commercial silk is cultivated.
 
Silk filament fibre is linear and its length may be up to 600 m, but generally average 300 m andthe diameter ranges from 12-30 µm.
 
Appearance, hand and cost make it as a luxury fibre.
 
It is used to create a variety of fabrics from sheer, gossamer chiffons to heavy brocades andvelvets.
 
Advanced Textile Materials (TE-571)
NTU Faisalabad
M.Sc Textile Engineering 1
st
Semester
Page
2
of 
4
 
Abu Bakkar Marwat
(
M.Sc Textile Engineering
)
 
texengr05@yahoo.com
c-
 
Cotton Fibres:
 
A seed hair obtained from the boll of the cotton plant.
 
A natural cellulosic fibre composed of polymers forming a highly crystalline structure.
 
Used by ancient, China, Egypt, India, Mexico and Peru and today it is most important textilefibre.
 
 
Pima, Egyptian and Sea Island are the most common varieties.
 
Staple length ranges from about 5mm to 60 mm, diameter from 11
 –
22 µm and strength from15-40 cN/tex.
 
It is a flat twisted ribbon in the longitudinal direction with a kidney-bean shaped cross-section.
 
Used where comfort is the most important requirement.
 
Mixed with other fibres to improve durability and appearance retention.
d-
 
Flax and Ramie Fibres:
 
A natural cellulosic Bast fibre, obtained from the inner bark of the stem of a plant grown intemperature and subtropical regions.
 
Fibre length ranges from 100
 –
1000 mm, diameter from 40
 –
80 µm.
 
Fabrics made from flax are called linen.
 
It is one of the oldest textile fibres: Remnants of linen were found among the remains of theSwiss Lake, Dwellers, who lived in 8000 BC and from the 3000 years old mummies found inEgyptian tombs.
 
Linen industry flourished in Europe until the 8
th
century but replaced by cotton with theinvention of power ring-spinning.
 
Today, it is a prestige fibre due to limited production and high cost.
 
Linen apparels are designed for warm weather use and as high fashion and professional wear.
 
Ramie is another bast fibre obtained from the tall perennial shrubs which requires a hot, humidclimate for growth.
 
Ramie plant grows primarily in China, Philippines and Brazil.
 
Ramie fibre is longer than 1500 mm and the diameter is coarse.
 
It is used for woven and knitted fabrics and often blended with cotton or wool.
2)
 
Regenerated Fibres:
There are mainly two types of regenerated fibres are as under:Man-made Cellulosic Fibres: Polymers do not naturally occur as fibres, but processing is done to convertthem into fibre form.
 – 
 
Rayon Fibres
 – 
 
Acetate Fibres
a-
 
Rayon Fibres:
 
It is the first manufactured fibre composed by 100 % regenerated cellulose.
 
Development dates back to 1664 when an English physicist Robert Hook suggested to Spinartificial filaments resembling natural silk.
 
Advanced Textile Materials (TE-571)
NTU Faisalabad
M.Sc Textile Engineering 1
st
Semester
Page
3
of 
4
 
Abu Bakkar Marwat
(
M.Sc Textile Engineering
)
 
texengr05@yahoo.com
 
A French scientist Count Hilaire de Chardonnet made the first commercial production of artificialsilk in 1884.
 
Rayon fibre is available in staple and filament yarn
 
, its fineness ranges from 1.5-15 denier.
 
Its cross-section is serrated and surface striated.
 
It is soft, comfortable and mostly used in woven fabrics with good drape.
b-
 
 Acetate Fibres:
 
It is also a regenerated cellulosic fibre manufactured by involving a greater degree of chemicalmodification.
 
Available in staple and filament form.
 
Its cross-section is lobe shaped and surface striated.
 
Appearance is similar to silk i.e. bright, shiny , and smooth to the eye and hand.
 
Vastly used as lining fabric, robes and longer wear.
 
Rayon and acetate are the oldest manufactured fibres and are being produced in large quantityto fulfill the need of low-cost textile fibres.
3)
 
Synthetic Fibres:
 
Non-cellulosic manufactured fibres produced from monomers by a polymerization process
 
Different chemical compounds are used as the raw materials for the polymer s of nylon,polyester olefin, acrylic, polyethylene fibre.
a-
 
Nylon Fibres:
 
It is the first synthetic fibre developed by Du Pont in 1939.
 
Less than 85% of the amide linkages of polyamide are attached to two aromatic rings.
 
It is highly crystalline, oriented and strongly hydrogen bonded between two types of polargroups, giving strength, flexibility and toughness.
 
Available in monofilament, multifilament, staple and to form in a wide range of fineness andcross-sectional shapes.
 
Available in woven and knitted fabrics.
 
In clothing industry, most nylon is used in filament form rather than staple.
b-
 
Polyester Fibres:
 
Fibres were first produced in England by ICI and were introduced in the USA by Du Pont in 1951.
 
Composed of at least 85 % by weight of an ester.
 
It is highly crystalline and well-oriented fibre.
 
Fibres have high tenacity and resistance.
 
At low stress, they have high elastic recovery, but at high and repeated stress, fibres show lowelastic recovery.
 
It is a smooth and even in diameter which ranges from 12-25µm.
 
It is available in filament, staple, tow, fibre fill and nonwoven structure.
 
Widely used as woven and knitted fabric by blending with cotton and Rayon which are durablecomfortable, retain their appearance well, and is easy care.

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