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Sheep Nutrition

Sheep Nutrition

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Published by: tioomar on Nov 25, 2012
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08/13/2014

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Contributors
N.R. Adams
,
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Mediterranean Agricultural Research, Private Bag 5, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia
E.F. Annison
,
 Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW  2570, Australia
 A.J. Ball
,
 Meat and Livestock Australia, c/o Animal Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
G. Caja
,
 Departamento de Ciencia Animal y de los Alimentos, Facultad deVeterinaria, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra,Cerdanyola, Spain
S.W. Coleman
,
USDA-ARS Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, 22271Chinsegut Hill Road, Brooksville, FL 34601, USA
R.L. Coop
,
 Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, UK 
 J.L. Corbett 
,
 Animal Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
H. Dove
,
CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
 J.M. Forbes
,
Centre for Animal Sciences, Leeds Institute of Biotechnology and Agriculture, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK 
M. Freer
,
CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
D.A. Henry
,
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Mediterranean Agricultural Research, Private Bag 5, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia
P.I. Hynd
,
 Department of Animal Science, Adelaide University, RoseworthyCampus, Roseworthy, SA 5371, Australia
G.J. Judson
,
South Australian Research and Development Institute, 33 Flemington Street, Glenside, SA 5065, Australia
 A.V. Klieve
,
 Agency for Food and Fibre Sciences, Animal Research Institute, Locked Mail Bag No. 4, Moorooka, Qld 4105, Australia
vii
 
S.O. Knowles
,
 AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
 J. Lee
,
 AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
D.B. Lindsay
,
66 Lantree Crescent, Trumpington, Cambridge CB2 2NJ, UK 
R.I. Mackie
,
 Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
D.G. Masters
,
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Mediterranean Agricultural Research, Private Bag 5, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia
R.W. Mayes
,
 Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, UK 
N.P. McMeniman
,
School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia
C.S. McSweeney
,
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratory, Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia
T.G. McEvoy
,
 Animal Biology Division, Scottish Agricultural College, Craibstone Estate, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, UK 
 J.V. Nolan
,
School of Rural Science and Agriculture, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
V.H. Oddy
,
 Meat and Livestock Australia, Locked Bag 991, North Sydney, NSW  2059, Australia
P.J. O’Reagain
,
Queensland Beef Industry Institute, Department of Primary Industries, PO Box 976, Charters Towers, Qld 4820, Australia
 J.J. Robinson
,
 Animal Biology Division, Scottish Agricultural College, Craibstone Estate, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, UK 
 J.A. Rooke
,
 Animal Biology Division, Scottish Agricultural College, Craibstone Estate, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, UK 
R.D. Sainz
,
 Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA95616-8521, USA
 A.R. Sykes
,
 Animal and Food Sciences Division, PO Box 84, Lincoln University,Canterbury 8150, New Zealand
T.T. Treacher
,
 51 Western Road, Oxford OX1 4LF, UK 
G.C. Waghorn
,
 AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
R.H. Weston
,
45 Park Street, Glenbrook, NSW 2773, Australia
D.R. Woodfield
,
 AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
viii Contributors
 
Preface
There are over 1 billion sheep in the world, with almost one-third of theselocated in China, Australia, New Zealand and the UK. The globalproduction of wool (2.3 million t) and sheep meat (7.6 million t) tends to be concentrated in these countries. However, the developing countries of the world also have substantial populations of sheep and it is these whichcontribute the bulk of the world’s sheep milk production (8.2 million t).Regardless of country or production system, a feature common to most of the world’s sheep is that they rely very substantially, at times exclusively, onpasture, sown or natural, as their source of nutrients. Advances in nutrition science in the last half of the 20th century havehelped us to define the processes of ruminant digestion and the nutrientrequirements of the sheep. We know that short-chain (volatile) fatty acids,not glucose, are the product of ruminant carbohydrate digestion, and wecan quantify the processes involved. With the current rapid advances incellular genetics, we are increasingly able to define which rumenmicroorganisms are responsible for which processes. We have quantifiedmuch about the processes of protein breakdown in the rumen and theincorporation of the resultant ammonia into microbial protein. Together,these processes of fibre digestion and microbial protein production are theprocesses which allow ruminants to survive on low-quality roughages.Challenges remain in quantifying the importance of the synchrony of theseprocesses under grazing conditions and in defining how we might breedpasture plants that achieve better synchrony.Perhaps an even greater challenge is that the reliance of the world’ssheep on pasture as their source of nutrients places a major constraint onour capacity to specify their daily intake of nutrients, especially in moreextensive grazing systems. This, in turn, constrains our ability to predictabsorption of nutrients, their interaction with body reserves of nutrients,
ix

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