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Fatigue Testing

Fatigue Testing

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Published by: samurai7_77 on Nov 25, 2012
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CMM NDT Services
Radiographic, Dye Penetrant, Magnetic Particle,Eddy Current, Ultrasonic Testing. Post weld heattreatment, infra red tomography.Thickness gauging, Underwater inspection. FRPInspection.
CMM NDT & Inspection
DOCUMENT
 
NUMBER
 
Mech-Course-001C
 
REV
 
01
 
Mechanical Testing 01C
 
An Introduction of mechanical Testing
 
Pictorial Basic
 
机械性能试验
 
图文简易教材
 
Part 3
Fatigue Testing
(Descriptive approach)
疲劳试验
 
www.cmmok.xinwen520.com
RIG/PLANTIn house training
 
ADDITIONAL
 
CODE
 
SDRL
 
CODE
 
TOTAL
 
PGS
 
21
 
REMARKS
 
MAIN
 
TAG
 
NUMBER
 
DISCIPLINEMechanical
 
CLIENT
 
PO
 
NUMBER
 
CLIENT
 
DOCUMENT
 
NUMBER
 
 
 
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REVISION HISTORY
 
01
 
10.05.2008
 
For
 
Approval
 
CMM
Rev
 
Date
 
(dd.mm.yyyy)
 
Reason
 
for
 
issue
 
Prep Check Appr
 
CHANGE
 
DESCRIPTION
 
Revision
 
Change
 
description
 
01
 
For
 
Approval
 
 
 
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Metal Fatigue
A phenomenon which results in the sudden fracture of a component after a period of cyclic loading in theelastic regime. Failure is the end result of a process involving the initiation and growth of a crack, usually atthe site of a stress concentration on the surface. Occasionally, a crack may initiate at a fault just below thesurface. Eventually the cross sectional area is so reduced that the component ruptures under a normalservice load, but one at a level which has been satisfactorily withstood on many previous occasions beforethe crack propagated. The final fracture may occur in a ductile or brittle mode depending on thecharacteristics of the material. Fatigue fractures have a characteristic appearance which reflects the initiationsite and the progressive development of the crack front, culminating in an area of final overload fracture.
 Initiation site(s).
 Progressive of crack front characterise by beach marks.
 Culminating in an area of final fracture.Fig. la illustrates fatigue failure in a circular shaft. The initiation site is shown and the shell-like markings,often referred to as beach markings because of their resemblance to the ridges left in the sand by retreatingwaves, are caused by arrests in the crack front as it propagates through the section. The hatched region onthe opposite side to the initiation site is the final region of ductile fracture. Sometimes there may be morethan one initiation point and two or more cracks propagate. This produces features as in Fig. 1b with the thefinal area of ductile fracture being a band across the middle. This type of fracture is typical of double bendingwhere a component is cyclically strained in one plane or where a second fatigue crack initiates at theopposite side to a developing crack in a component subject to reverse bending. Some stress-induced fatiguefailures may show multiple initiation sites from which separate cracks spread towards a common meetingpoint within the section.
Fig. 1
 Fatigue strength is determined by applying different levels of cyclic stress to individual test specimens andmeasuring the number of cycles to failure. Standard laboratory test use various methods for applying thecyclic load, e.g. rotating bend, cantilever bend, axial push-pull and torsion. The data are plotted in the form ofa stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) curve, fig 2. Owing to the statistical nature of the failure, several

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