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DDL Exam 1 Study Guide Nineth Ed

DDL Exam 1 Study Guide Nineth Ed

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PSY 324 Childhood and AdolescenceExam 1 Study Guide 9
th
ed. 1
Chapter 1 – Theoretical and Social Issues
A note about tests
Tests are in a multiple-choice test format. For each concept covered in the study guide,you should be prepared to
recognize the definition of the concept
recognize an example of the conceptBecause the incorrect answers are drawn from the textbook, you need to be prepared todiscriminate among closely-related concepts. You will be better prepared to do this if you
identify similarities and differences among the concepts as you study them
identify how each example presented in the chapter illustrates the conceptMy best advice on how to prepare for the exams is to follow the study tips in thedocument titled
“How to Study for the Exams”
(in the Study Guides area).
Introduction to Chapter 1
Chapter 1 discusses theories and points out two ways that scientific theories are valuable.What the book doesn't point out is that non-scientific "personal" theories do the samethings. They guide our observations and they suggest what we should do. Personaltheories are the "common sense" ideas we have about children. They can be dangerous, because they are often only partly correct or only correct in very specific situations. If we are guided by personal theories that aren’t completely correct or that don't apply to thespecific situation, we are in danger of misinterpreting the situation and making poor decisions.For example, lots of parents believe that children need to be punished in order to learnrespect for authority. (I'm talking about punishment, not discipline. We'll get into thedifference between punishment and discipline later in the course.) This personal theory islimited because it doesn't take into account the relationships among the three parts: punishment, learning, and respect for authority. Scientific theories explain that punishment results in learning to fear and dislike the punisher and learning to use punishment as a means of getting what you want and controlling others. It also explainsthat respect is based on trust (confidence that the authority figure will not hurt you) andon having important things in common with the authority figure (such as, interests,attitudes, values, and goals). The scientific theory doesn't make a judgment aboutwhether punishment is right or wrong, but it does describe what the effects of punishmentare. It explains why punishment is not an effective way of teaching children respect for authority.Another example of a limitation of personal theories is that they provide differentexplanations for our own behavior vs. other people's behavior. (The psychological process is called
attribution
.) When I fail a test, it's because the test was unfair or too
 
PSY 324 Childhood and AdolescenceExam 1 Study Guide 9
th
ed. 2
hard. When someone else fails a test, it's because that person didn't study hard enough.Scientific theories force us to find a way to use the same set of rules and ideas to explaineveryone's behavior.The social policy part of chapter 1 shows that children's well-being has a lower priority inthe U.S. than in most other industrialized nations in spite of the U.S. being the wealthiestof those nations. In addition, the U.S. is the only government in the world that has notratified the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. As a result, privately-funded organizations have taken on the responsibility of attempting to increaseour government's attention to children's needs and rights.
Periods of Development
1. Learn the age ranges associated with the various periods of development from infancythrough adolescence. (pp. 5-6)
 Note that early childhood is often referred to as the preschool years.
Either middle childhood or late childhood can be used to refer to the entire rangeof about 6 to 11 years (roughly corresponding to the grade school years). Manytimes, it is helpful to use the term middle childhood to refer to the range of about6-8 years (roughly Kindergarten through 2
nd
grade) and late childhood to refer tothe range of about 9-11 years (roughly 3
rd
through 6
th
grades).
In societies with a long transition period from adolescence to adulthood, thattransition period (roughly ages 18-25) is called emerging adulthood.
Theoretical Issues
2. Define
theory
. (p. 6)3. Identify the two basic uses of theories. (pp. 6-7)4. Note these characteristics of theories: they are influenced by cultural values, they aresubjected to scientific verification, no single theory covers the whole range of issues inhuman development. (pp. 6-7)5. Identify the three basic theoretical issues about development. (p. 7)6. Describe the issue of 
continuous vs. discontinuous development 
. Define
continuity
,
discontinuity
, and
 stage
. How does discontinuity relate to the concept of stages? (pp. 7-8)7. Describe the issue regarding whether there is one course of development or many.Define
contexts
. (p. 8)8. Describe the
nature-nurture controversy
. Define
nature
and
nurture
. (pp. 8-9)9. Describe the
 stability vs. plasticity
issue in development. (p. 9)
 
PSY 324 Childhood and AdolescenceExam 1 Study Guide 9
th
ed. 3
10. Describe a balanced view of the three basic issues about development. (p. 9)
Resilient Children
11. Identify two personal characteristics of a child and two characteristics of the child'ssocial environment that affect resilience. Define
resilience
. (pp. 10-11)
Theories of Human Development
12. Describe the psychosocial stages associated with middle childhood (industry vs.inferiority), adolescence (identity vs. identity confusion), and emerging adulthood(intimacy vs. isolation). (Table 1.1)13. Describe the basic idea of social learning theory. Define
 social learning 
(also knownas modeling, imitation, and observational learning). What is the name of the theoristassociated with social learning theory? (p. 18)14. How does social-cognitive theory differ from social learning theory? Define
 self-efficacy
. (p. 18)15. Describe the basic idea of cognitive-developmental theory. (p. 19)16. Define sensorimotor thinking and the age range commonly associated with it.
Sensorimotor thinking is based on knowledge in the form of actions (motor responses) that are associated with sensations either from internal sources or fromthe environment. (Table 1.2)17. Define
 preoperational thinking 
and identify the age range commonly associated withit.
Preoperational thinking is based on knowledge in the form of concepts, symbols,or images that are mental representations of objects and events. (Table 1.2)18. Define
concrete operational thinking 
and identify the age range commonlyassociated it.
Concrete operational thinking is based on concepts and hierarchical relationshipsamong concepts. (Table 1.2)19. Define
 formal operational thinking 
and identify the age range commonly associatedwith it.
Formal operational thinking, like concrete operational thinking, is based onconcepts and hierarchical relationships among concepts. The difference is thatconcrete operational thinking requires some real objects or events to be present inorder for the person to be able to think operationally, whereas formal operationalthinking can occur in the absence of real objects or events. (Table 1.2)

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