PSY 324 Childhood and AdolescenceExam 1 Study Guide 9
10. Describe a balanced view of the three basic issues about development. (p. 9)
11. Identify two personal characteristics of a child and two characteristics of the child'ssocial environment that affect resilience. Define
. (pp. 10-11)
Theories of Human Development
12. Describe the psychosocial stages associated with middle childhood (industry vs.inferiority), adolescence (identity vs. identity confusion), and emerging adulthood(intimacy vs. isolation). (Table 1.1)13. Describe the basic idea of social learning theory. Define
(also knownas modeling, imitation, and observational learning). What is the name of the theoristassociated with social learning theory? (p. 18)14. How does social-cognitive theory differ from social learning theory? Define
. (p. 18)15. Describe the basic idea of cognitive-developmental theory. (p. 19)16. Define sensorimotor thinking and the age range commonly associated with it.
Sensorimotor thinking is based on knowledge in the form of actions (motor responses) that are associated with sensations either from internal sources or fromthe environment. (Table 1.2)17. Define
and identify the age range commonly associated withit.
Preoperational thinking is based on knowledge in the form of concepts, symbols,or images that are mental representations of objects and events. (Table 1.2)18. Define
concrete operational thinking
and identify the age range commonlyassociated it.
Concrete operational thinking is based on concepts and hierarchical relationshipsamong concepts. (Table 1.2)19. Define
formal operational thinking
and identify the age range commonly associatedwith it.
Formal operational thinking, like concrete operational thinking, is based onconcepts and hierarchical relationships among concepts. The difference is thatconcrete operational thinking requires some real objects or events to be present inorder for the person to be able to think operationally, whereas formal operationalthinking can occur in the absence of real objects or events. (Table 1.2)