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Exam 4 Study Guide

Exam 4 Study Guide

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PSY 324 Childhood and Adolescence Exam 4 Study Guide 9
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Chapter 13 - Development of Sex-Related Differences andGender Roles
Introduction to Chapter 13
Gender stereotypes are so engrained that it is difficult to believe that they don't containa grain of truth. Many of us find it hard to accept that there are very few psychologicalcharacteristics on which females and males differ significantly. Even the mostunbiased among us struggle with the idea that on those few psychologicalcharacteristics, the differences between women and men are 10% at the most. How canthese conclusions, based on thousands of research studies, be accurate when it is soclear to many of us that women and men are totally different in lots of ways? A large part of the answer lies in the nature of stereotypical thinking. Stereotypes are preoperational. If you look back at the characteristics of preoperational thinking, you'llsee why the stereotypes we accept seem so obviously true and are so difficult tochange. (Textbook material on
 gender-schemas
, pp. 551-552, will help clarify this.)In the case of gender stereotypes, their preoperational nature requires that everything beclassified as either female or male. There is no place in preoperational thinking for instances that violate the stereotype. Consequently, when men are seen being sensitiveor women are seen being aggressive, these instances are discounted as exceptions to the"true" nature of men and women. Even worse, many of these instances are not even perceived. They are screened out by selective attentional strategies because they don'tfit with what we "know." The very experiences that would disprove stereotypes areunlikely to be processed. As a result, when we look back through our past experiencewe can see that women really are more empathetic than men and men really are moreaggressive than women, no matter what the textbook says!Think about this. How often do you describe women and men as
opposite…
not justdifferent
…opposite
?How easy or difficult is it for you to think about women and men being the same inmost ways? Do the few physical and psychological differences make it seem that theymust be different in every way?
Gender Stereotypes
1. Define
 gender stereotypes
,
 gender roles
, and
 gender identity
. (p. 530)2. In Western cultures, what types of traits have been traditionally associated withmasculinity and femininity? (p. 530 and Table 13.1)
 Note how gender stereotyping develops in early childhood. (p. 531) Given thatour basic concepts of gender (gender schemas) develop during our preschoolyears, it makes sense that many ideas about gender continue to be preoperational (rigid, superficial, all-or-none) in adolescence and adulthood.
As explained in the introductory comments above, gender schemas are highlyresistant to change because any experience that does not fit into our schema of 
 
PSY 324 Childhood and Adolescence Exam 4 Study Guide 9
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male or female is not used to revise our ideas, it is either ignored or interpretedas an exception.3. How does knowledge about gender-related personality trait stereotypes changeduring middle childhood? By what age is knowledge of personality trait stereotypes
adultlike
? (p. 532)4. How much flexibility in gender-related personality traits is acceptable during middlechildhood? Are boys or girls given more latitude in gender-related personality traits?(p. 533 and Figure 13.2)5. Note that gender stereotype flexibility is a good predictor of gender-role adoption inmiddle childhood. (p. 534) Can you translate that statement into everyday language?6. Make a list of specific ways parents tend to treat boys and girls differently duringmiddle childhood and adolescence. (pp. 539-542, including Figure 13.4)
Gender Identity
7. Define
androgyny
and summarize its implications for psychological adjustment.(pp. 547-548)8. Describe the development of gender identity in middle childhood. (pp. 549-550)
 Notice that it is important for children to feel that they fit in with their same-sex peers, feel comfortable with their gender, and not feel
 pressured 
to conform togender roles.9. Describe the development of gender identity in early adolescence. How is the process of 
 gender intensification
influenced by puberty and cognitive development?(pp. 550-551)10. Describe the gist of gender-schema theory. (p. 551 and Figure 13.9)11. How would gender-schematic thinking alter a child's memory of an event that isgender inconsistent, such as seeing a photo of a male nurse or a female physician? (p.552) Note that the
 preoperational 
characteristics of gender schemas (all-or-none,concrete, centered on one feature) make it difficult for children (and adults, for thatmatter) to learn from encountering exceptions to their stereotyped gender schemas.12. What are two things you would do if you wanted to minimize gender stereotypingin middle childhood? (p. 552)
Gender Differences
13. Of all the imaginable psychological characteristics people possess, the number onwhich women and men differ measurably is small.
 
PSY 324 Childhood and Adolescence Exam 4 Study Guide 9
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Sex differences usually account for no more than ___% to ___% of differences between individuals, leaving 90%-95% to be explained by factors other thangender. (p. 553 and Table 13.2)14. Make a list of things you could do if you wanted to nurture your daughter's mathand science skills. (pp. 556-558)15. List two examples of girls' greater emotional sensitivity. (p. 558)16. What can you conclude about gender differences in prosocial behaviors when youconsider the full range of those behaviors, including caring, sharing, and helping? (p.558)
 Note that parents use more inductive discipline with girls, pressure girls to bethoughtful and caring, and spend more time talking with girls about emotions.(p.559)17. Describe the developmental trend in depression for boys and girls duringadolescence. (p. 559)18. What do cultural differences suggest about the causes of adolescent depression?(p. 560) Depression in adolescents should be taken seriously. It should not be thoughtof as “just an adolescent phase.”19. How do boys and girls differ in aggression during middle childhood andadolescence? (p. 560)20. What strategies would you use if you wanted to minimize gender stereotyping andgender-role conformity in your children? (pp. 562-563, including
 Applying What We Know
)
Culture and Gender Stereotypes
Development of masculine and feminine traits in children and adolescents has animpact on their psychological adjustment mainly because our society generally valuesmasculine personality traits more highly than feminine personality traits. Ours is anindividualistic, capitalistic society in which social status and power are equated withmaterial wealth which is earned through competition. Engaging in competition is not afeminine personality trait. Even if it were, the kind, empathetic, tactful approach wouldrarely win. The masculine traits acquired by androgynous women enable them to act inways that are rewarded by society in many situations; to be assertive, competitive, andindependent.
Chapter 14 – The Family
Introduction to Chapter 14

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